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Akaranga Sutra

Knowledge of the weapon
Conquest of the world
Hot and cold
Righteousness
Essence of the world
The Cleaning
Liberation
The Pillow of righteousness
Begging of food
Begging for a couch
Walking
Modes of speech
Begging of clothes
Begging for a bowl
Regulation of possession
Seven Lectures - 1
Seven Lectures - 2
Seven Lectures - 3
Seven Lectures - 4
Seven Lectures - 5
Seven Lectures - 6
Seven Lectures - 7
The Clauses
The Liberation

Kalpa Sutra

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Home : Jainism : Akaranga Sutra : Walking
Walking

First lesson.

601
When the rainy season has come and it is raining, many living beings are originated and many seeds just spring up, the roads between (different places) contain many living beings, seeds. The footpaths are not used, the roads are not recognisable. Knowing this (state of things) one should not wander from village to village, but remain during the rainy season in one place.

602
When a monk or a nun knows that. in a village or scot-free town. There is no large place for religious practices nor for study; that there cannot easily be obtained a stool, bench, bed, or couch, nor pure, acceptable alms; that there have come or will come many Sramanas and Brahmanas, guests, paupers, and beggars; that the means of existence are extremely small; that it is not fit for a wise man to enter or leave it. In such a village, scot-free town, they should not remain during the cold season.

603
When. a monk or a nun knows that in a village or scot-free town, there is a large place for religious practices or for study; that there can easily be obtained a stool, bench, bed, or couch, or pure, acceptable alms; that there have not come nor will come Sramanas and Brahmanas, guests, paupers, and beggars; that the means of existence are not small, they may remain in such a village, during the rainy season.

604
Now they should know this - After the four months of the rainy season are over, and five or ten days of the winter have passed, they should not wander from village to village, if the road contains many living beings, and if many Sramanas and Brahmanas, do not yet travel.

605
But if after the same time the road contains few living beings, and many Sramanas and Brihmanas, travel, they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

606
A monk or a nun wandering from village to village should look forward for four cubits, and seeing animals they should move on by walking on his toes or heels or the sides of his feet. If there be some bypath, they should choose it, and not go straight on; then they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

607
A monk or a nun wandering from village to village, on whose way there are living beings, seeds, grass, water, or mud, should not go straight if there be an unobstructed byway; then they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

608
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road (lies through) places belonging to borderers, robbers,

609
Mlekkhas, non-Aryan people, half-civilised people, unconverted people, people who rise or eat at an improper time, should, if there be some other place for walking about or friendly districts, not choose the former road for their voyage.

610
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: The ignorant populace might bully, beat, the mendicant, in the opinion that he is a thief or a spy, or that he comes from yonder (hostile village); or they might take away, cut off, steal or rob his robe, alms-bowl, mantle, or broom. Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that one whose road (lies through) places belonging. (all as in the last paragraph); then he may circumspectly wander from village to village.

611
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road (lies through) a country where there is no king or many kings or an unanointed king or two governments or no government or a weak government, should, if there be some other place for walking about or friendly districts, not choose the former road for their voyage. The Kevalin says: This is the reason: The ignorant populace might bully or beat, the mendicant.

612
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, whose road lies through a forest which they are not certain of crossing in one or two or three or four or five days, should, if there be some other place for walking about or friendly districts, not choose the former road for their voyage.

613
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: During the rain (he might injure) living beings, mildew, seeds, grass, water, mud. Hence it has been said to the mendicant that one whose road lies through such a forest. (all as in the last paragraph); then he may circumspectly wander from village to village.

614
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, on whose way there is some watercourse which must be crossed by a boat, should not ascend such a boat which plies up or down or across (the river), neither for one yogana's or half a yogana's distance, neither for a shorter nor a longer voyage, if they know that the householder' will buy or purloin the boat, or doing the work necessary to put the boat in order, pull it ashore out of the water, or push it from the shore into the water, or bale it, if it is filled (with water), or cause a sinking boat to float.

615
A monk or a nun, knowing that a boat will cross the river, should, after having received the owners permission, step apart, examine their outfit, put aside their provender, wipe their body from head to heels, reject the householder's food, and putting one foot in the water and the other in the air, they should circumspectly enter the boat.

616
A monk or a nun in entering the boat should not choose for that purpose the stern or the prow or the middle of the boat; nor should they look at it holding up their arms, pointing at it with their finger, bowing up and down.

617
If, on board, the boatman should say to the monk, O long-lived Sramana! pull the boat forward or backward, or push it, or draw it with the rope towards you, or, let us do it together,' he should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

618
If, on board, the other should say to him, 'O long-lived Sramana! you cannot pull the boat forward or backward, or push it, or draw it with a rope towards you; give us the rope, we will ourselves pull the boat forward or backward,' he should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

619
If, on board, the other should say to him,'O long-lived Sramana! if you can, pull the boat by the oar, the rudder, the pole, and other nautical instruments,' he should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

620
If, on board, the other should say to him, 'O long-lived Sramana! please, lade out the water with your hand, or pitcher, or vessel, or alms-bowl, or bucket,' he should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

621
If, on board, the other should say to him,'O long-lived Sramana! please, stop the boat's leak with your hand, foot, arm, thigh, belly, head, body, the bucket, or a cloth, or with mud, Kusa-grass, or lotus leaves,' be should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

622
If a monk or a nun see that water enters through a leak in the boat, and the boat becomes dirty all over, they should not approach the boatman and say: 'O long-lived householder! water enters through a leak into the boat, and it becomes dirty all over.'

 

623
One should not think so or speak so; but undisturbed, the mind not directed outwardly, one should collect one's self for contemplation; then one may circumspectly complete one's journey by the boat on the water.

624
This is the whole duty.

625
Thus I say.

Second lesson.

626
If, on board, the boatman should say to the mendicant,'O long-lived Sramana! please, take this umbrella, pot. Hold these various dangerous instruments, let this boy or girl drink,' he should not comply with his request, but look on silently.

627
If, on board, the boatman should say to another of the crew,'O long-lived one! this Sramana is only a heavy load for the boat, take hold of him with your arms and throw him into the water!' hearing and perceiving such talk, he should, if he wears clothes, quickly take them off or fasten them or put them in a bundle on his head.

628
Now he may think: These ruffians, accustomed to violent acts, might take hold of me and throw me from the boat into the water. He should first say to them:'O long-lived householders! don't take hold of me with your arms and throw me into the water! I myself shall leap from the boat into the water!'

629
If after these words the other, by force and violence, takes hold of him with his arms and throws him into the water, he should be neither glad nor sorry, neither in high nor low spirits, nor should he offer violent resistance to those ruffians; but undisturbed, his mind not directed to outward things. He may circumspectly swim in the water.

630
A monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should not touch (another person's or their own?) hand, foot, or body with their own hand, foot, or body; but without touching it they should circumspectly swim in the water.

631
A monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should not dive up or down, lest water should enter into their ears, eyes, nose, or mouth; but they should circumspectly swim in the water.

632
If a monk or a nun, swimming in the water, should be overcome by weakness, they should throw off their implements (clothes.), either all or a part of them, and not be attached to them. Now they should know this: If they are able to get out of the water and reach the bank, they should circumspectly remain on the bank with a wet or moist body.

633
A monk or a nun should not wipe or rub or brush or stroke [The original has six words for different kinds of rubbing, which it would be impossible to render adequately in any other language -tr.] or dry or warm or heat (in the sun) their body. But when they perceive that the water on their body has dried up, and the moisture is gone, they may wipe or rub, their body in that state; then they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

634
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage should not wander from village to village, conversing with householders; they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

635
If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come across a shallow water, they should first wipe their body from head to heels, then, putting one foot in the water and the other in the air, they should wade through the shallow water in a straight line.

636
If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come across a shallow water, they should wade through it in a straight line, without being touched by or touching. (another person's or their own?) hand, foot, or body with-their own hand, foot, or body.

637
A monk or a nun, wading through shallow water in a straight line, should not plunge in deeper water for the sake of pleasure or the heat; but they should circumspectly wade through the shallow water in a straight line. Now they should know this: If one is able to get out of the water and reach the bank, one should circumspectly remain on the bank with a wet or moist body.

638
A monk or a nun should not wipe or rub.

639
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, with their feet soiled with mud, should not, in order that the grass might take off the mud from the feet, walk out of the way and destroy the grass by cutting, trampling, and tearing it. As this would be sinful, they should not do so. But they should first inspect a path containing little grass; then they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

640
If a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage come upon walls or ditches or ramparts or gates or bolts or holes to fit them, or moats or caves, they should, in case there be a byway, choose it, and not go on straight.

641
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: Walking there, the mendicant might stumble or fall down; when he stumbles or falls down, he might get hold of trees, shrubs, plants, creepers, grass, copsewood, or sprouts to extricate himself. He should ask travellers who meet him, to lend a hand; then he may circumspectly lean upon it and extricate himself; so he may circumspectly wander from village to village.

642
If a monk or a nun perceive in their way (transports of) corn, waggons, cars, a friendly or hostile army, some encamped troops, they should, in case there be a byway, circumspectly choose it, and not walk on straight. One trooper might say to another: 'O long-lived one! this Sramana is a spy upon the army; take hold of him with your arms, and drag him hither!' The other might take hold of the mendicant with his arms and drag him on. He should neither be glad nor sorry for it; then he may circumspectly wander from village to village.

643
If on his road travellers meet him and say, 'O long-lived Sramana! how large is this village or scot-free town.? how many horses, elephants, beggars, men dwell in it? is there much food, water, population, corn? is there little food, water, population, corn?' he should not answer such questions if asked, nor ask them himself.

644
This is the whole duty.

645
Thus I say.

Third lesson.

646
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, in whose way there are walls or ditches or ramparts or gates. Hill houses, palaces, underground houses, houses in trees, mountain caves, a sacred tree or pillar, workshops. Should not look at them holding up their arms, pointing at them with their fingers, bowing up and down. Then they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

647
A monk or a nun on the pilgrimage, on whose way there are marshes, pasture-grounds, moats, fortified places, thickets, strongholds in thickets, woods, mountains, strongholds on mountains, caves, tanks, lakes, rivers, ponds, lotus ponds, long winding ponds, water-sheets, rows of water-sheets, should not look at them holding up their arms.

648
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: The deer, cattle, birds, snakes, animals living in water, on land, in the air might be disturbed or frightened, and strive to get to a fold or (other place of) refuge, (thinking): 'The Sramana will -harm me!'

649
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should not look at the objects holding up his arms.

650
A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village together with the master or teacher, should not touch the master's or teacher's hand with their own.; but without touching or being touched they should circumspectly wander from village to village together with the master or teacher.

651
A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village together with the master or teacher, might be met on the road by travellers and asked: 'O long-lived Sramana! who are you? whence do you come, and where do you go?' The master or teacher may answer and explain; but whilst the master or teacher answers and explains, one should not mix in their conversation. Thus they may wander from village to village with a superior priest.

652
A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village with a superior priest, should not touch the superior's hand with their own.

653
A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village with superior priests, might be met on the road by travellers, and be asked: 'O long-lived Sramana! who are you?' He who has the highest rank of them all, should answer and explain; but whilst the superior answers and explains, one should not mix in their conversation.

654
A monk or a nun, wandering from village to village, might be met on the road by travellers, and be asked: 'O long-lived Sramana! did you see somebody on the road? viz. a man, cow, buffalo, cattle, bird, snake, or aquatic animal-tell us, show us!' The mendicant should not tell it, nor show it, he should not comply with their request, but look on silently, or, though knowing it, he should say that he did not know. Then he may circumspectly wander from village to village.

655
He should act in the same manner, if asked about bulbs of water-plants, roots, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, water in the neighbourhood, or a kindled fire;

656
Likewise, if asked about (transports of) corn, waggons, cars.

657
Likewise, if asked: ' O long-lived Sramana! how large is this village or scot-free town.?'

658
Likewise, if asked: 'O long-lived Sramana! How far is it to that village or scot-free town. .?'

659
If a monk or a nun, wandering from village to village, sees a vicious cow coming towards them. They should not, from fear of them, leave the road, or go into another road, nor enter a thicket, wood, or stronghold, nor climb a tree, nor take a plunge in a large and extended water-sheet, nor desire a fold or any other place of refuge, or an army or a caravan; but undisturbed, the mind not directed to outward things, they should collect themselves for contemplation; thus they may circumspectly wander from village to village.

660
If the road of a monk or a nun on the pilgrimage lies through a forest, in which, as they know, there stroll bands of many thieves desirous of their property, they should not, for fear of them, leave the road.

661
If these thieves say, 'O long-lived Sramana! bring us your clothes, give them, put them down!' the mendicant should not give or put them down. Nor should he reclaim (his things) by imploring (the thieves), or by folding his hands, or by moving their compassion, but by religious exhortation or by remaining silent.

662
If the thieves, resolving to do it themselves, bully him, tear off his clothes, he should not lodge an information in the village or at the king's palace; nor should he go to a layman, and say, 'O long-lived householder! these thieves, resolving to do (the robbing) themselves, have bullied me, they have torn off my, clothes,' . He should neither think so, nor speak so; but undisturbed.

663
This is the whole duty.

664
Thus I say.

665
End of the Third Lecture, called Walking.

 


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