He who is awakened amongst men,
preaches; the man to whom all these classes of lives are well
known, preaches the unparalleled wisdom. He praises the road to
liberation for those who well exert themselves, who have
forsworn cruelty, are zealous and endowed with knowledge. Thus
some great heroes are victorious; but, look, some others who are
wanting in control do not understand (the welfare of) their
souls. Thus I say.
As in a lake a greedy leaf-covered tortoise cannot rise tip; as
the trees do not leave their-place (though shaken by storms):
thus men, born in various families, cry bitterly because they
are attached to the objects of the senses; on account of their
sinfulness they do not reach liberation.
Now look at those who are born in these families to reap the
fruit of their own acts:
Bolls and leprosy, consumption, falling sickness, blindness and
stiffness, lameness and hump-backedness,
Dropsy and dumbness, look! apoplexy and eye-disease, trembling
and crippledness, elephantiasis and diabetes,
These are the sixteen diseases enumerated in due order; besides
them many illnesses and wounds occur.
Contemplating their (i.e. the creatures') death, knowing their
births in higher and lower regions, contemplating the fruit (of
their acts), hear about this according to truth.
There are said to be blind beings dwelling in darkness; once or
frequently meeting this lot, they experience pleasant and
unpleasant feelings. This has been declared by the awakened
There are beings endowed with voice, with taste, waterbeings
dwelling in water, beings living in the air: 'beings torment
beings. See the great danger in this world;' many pains (are the
lot) of the creatures. Men who are given to their lusts, come to
destruction through their weak, frail body. 'The fool works
hard, thinking' that the unhappy one suffers many pains.
'Knowing that these diseases are many, should the afflicted
search after (remedies)?' See! they are of no avail, have done
with them! Sage! see this great danger! Do not hurt anybody!
Contemplate. Be attentive! I shall proclaim the doctrine of
To reap the fruit of their acts they are born in these various
families, they increase, are born, grow up, become awakened, and
leave the world in due order as great sages. The lamenting
parents say to them who proceed on the glorious road: 'Do not
He should always maintain this knowledge! Thus I say.
Though some know the misery of the world, have relinquished
their former connections, have given up case, live in chastity,
and, whether monk or layman, thoroughly understand the law, they
are not able (to persevere in a religious life). The
ill-disposed, giving up the robe, alms-bowl, blanket, and broom,
do not bear the continuous hardships that are difficult to bear.
He who prefers pleasures will, now or after an hour, be deprived
(of the body, not to recover it) for an infinite space of time.
And thus they do not cross (the samsara), for the sake of these
pleasures which entail evil consequences and are associated with
others of their kind.
But some who embrace the law, will practise it, being careful
about its outward signs; not giving way to worldliness, but
being firm. Knowing (and renouncing) all lust, a devout man
becomes a great sage when he breaks all bonds, thinking: Nothing
belongs to me. A man who, thinking, I am I, exerts himself for
this (creed), ceases (to act), is houseless, walks about
bald-headed. The naked, fasting (monk), who combats the flesh,
will be abused, or struck, or hurt; he will be upbraided with
his former trade, or reviled with untrue reproaches. Accounting
(for this treatment) by his former sins, knowing pleasant and
unpleasant occurrences, he should patiently wander about.
Quitting all worldliness one should bear all (disagreeable)
feelings, being possessed of the right view.
Those are called naked, who in this world, never returning (to a
worldly state), (follow) my religion according to the
commandment. This highest doctrine has here been declared for
men. Delighted with this, destroying that (i.e. the effect of
works), he will successively give up sinfulness, after having
come to a knowledge of it. Here (in our religion) some live as
single mendicants. Therefore a wise man should lead the life of
an ascetic by collecting pure alms or any alms in all sorts of
families. 'If (the food) be of good or bad smell, or if dreadful
beasts inflict pain on (other) beings' - all that happens to
you, you will firmly bear it. Thus I say.
A sage who is well instructed in the law and leads a life of
abstinence, is always a destroyer of the effects of works. To a
mendicant who is little clothed and firm in control, it will not
occur (to think): My clothes are torn, I shall beg for (new)
clothes; I shall beg for thread; I shall beg for a needle; I
shall mend (my clothes); I shall darn them; I shall repair them;
I shall put them on; I shall wrap myself in them.
The unclothed one, who excels in this (abstinence), will often
be molested by (sharp blades of) grass, by cold, heat, gnats,
and mosquitoes. The unclothed one, who effects scarcity (of his
wants or of his karman), bears these and various other
hardships. He is fit for penance, as has been declared by the
Revered One. Understanding this in all respects and with his
whole mind, he should perfectly know righteousness. The great
heroes (i.e. the Tirthakaras) who for a long time walked in the
former years, the worthy ones bore the troubles (mentioned
above); endowed with perfect knowledge they had lean arms and
very little flesh and blood. He who discontinues (to sin) and is
enlightened, is said to have crossed (the samsara), to be
liberated, and to have ceased (to act). Thus I say.
But can discontent lay hold of a mendicant, who has ceased to
act and leads a religious life, for a long time controlling
himself? He advances in his spiritual career and exerts himself.
As an island which is never covered with water, so is the law
taught by the noble ones (a safe refuge for those in danger).
They are free from desires, free from murder, beloved, wise,
learned. For their benefit has been the exertion of the Revered
One; as birds (feed) their young ones, so are the disciples
regularly to be instructed day and night. Thus I say.
The disciples are thus regularly instructed, day and night, by
the knowledge-endowed great heroes, receiving knowledge from
them. Some, being seduced from the calmness of the mind, adopt
rough manners. Some, living in chastity, dispute the authority
(of the teacher), others hear and understand his words; they
intend to lead a godly life, but having left the world, they are
not qualified (for a religious life). Others, being incensed by
lusts, greedy, sensual, 'do not care for abstract meditation and
religious instruction: these men speak harshly unto the
teacher.' It is a second folly of the slow-minded to call
virtuous, calm, religiously living men worthless.
Some, turning from (control), assign its difficulty as their
reason (for doing so); others, falling from the pure knowledge
and defiling the creed, though not without devotion, for the
love of life. change (their vows). 'When they feel the hardships
(of a religious life) they slide back, for their love of life.'
Their leaving the world is a bad leaving.
Those who deserve to be called fools, are born again and again.
Standing low (in learning or control) they will exalt themselves
(and say) in their pride: I am learned. They speak harshly unto
the passionless; they upbraid them with their former trades, or
revile them with untrue reproaches . The wise, therefore, should
know the law. Thou lovest unrighteousness, because thou art
young, and lovest acts, and sayest: 'Kill beings;' thou killest
them or consentest to their being killed by others. (Such a man)
thinks contemptuously: A very severe religion has been
proclaimed. Sinking in opposition to the law, he is called
murderer. Thus I say.
Some think: What have I to do with this or that man? Thus they
leave father and mother, kith and kin, like heroes exerting
themselves, free from murder. Look! the pious and calm become
desponding; the rising, cast down. Those troubled with
sensuality, the cowardly men become perverters of the faith.
Therefore the reputation of some becomes bad. He is an apostate
ascetic! He is an apostate ascetic
Look! Some, though living with religious, pious, calm, and
worthy (monks), are not religious, nor pious, nor calm, nor
worthy. Knowing them, the learned, the wise, the steadfast hero
will always be victorious through the right faith. Thus I say.
Staying in or between houses, in or between villages, in or
between towns, in or between counties, a monk is attacked by
murderers, or is subject to the hardships (of a mendicant's
life). A hero should bear these hardships.
A Saint, with right intuition, who cherishes compassion for the
world, in the east, west, south, and north, should preach,
spread, and praise (the faith), knowing the sacred lore. He
should proclaim it among those who exert themselves, and those
who do not, among those who are willing to hear (the word).
Not neglecting tranquillity, indifference, patience, liberation,
purity, uprightness, gentleness, and freedom from worldly cares,
one should, with due consideration, preach the law of the
mendicants to all sorts of creatures.
With due consideration preaching the law of the mendicants, one
should do no injury to one's self, nor to anybody else, nor to
any of the four kinds of living beings. But a great sage,
neither injuring nor injured, becomes a shelter for all sorts of
afflicted creatures, even as an island, which is never covered
Thus a man who exerts himself, and is of a steady mind, without
attachment, unmoved (by passion) but restless (in wandering
about), having no worldly desires, should lead the life of an
Having contemplated the beautiful law, the discerning one is
Therefore look at worldliness, ye men, fettered in fetters!
Those whom lust conquers, sink; therefore do not shrink from the
hard (control)! He who knows (and renounces) perfectly and
thoroughly these injurious acts, from whom the injurers do not
shrink, 'who has shaken off wrath, pride,' delusion, and greed,
'he is called a removed one.' Thus I say.
On the decay of the body (he does not despond, but deserves) his
appellation, 'the leader of the battle.' The sage who has
reached the other side, unafflicted and unmoved like a beam,
being in the power of death, desires death as the dissolution of
the body. Thus I say.
End of the Sixth Lecture, called the Cleaning.