The unwise sleep, the sages always
wake. Know, that in this world the (cause of) misery brings
forth evil consequences! Knowing the course of the world, one
should cease from violent acts. He who correctly possesses these
(sensual perceptions), viz. sounds, and colours, and smells, and
tastes, and touches
who self-possessed, wise, just, chaste, With right comprehension
understands the world, he is to be called a sage, one who knows
the law, and righteous. He knows the connection of the whirl (of
births) and the Current (of sensation with love and hate). Not
minding heat and cold, equanimous against pleasure and pain, the
Nirgrantha does not feel the austerity of penance. Waking and
free from hostility, a wise man, thou liberatest (thyself and
others) from the miseries.
But a man always benighted, subject to old age and death, does
not know the law. Seeing living beings suffering, earnestly
enter a religious life. Considering this, O prudent one, look!
Knowing the misery that results from action,
The deluded and careless one returns to life;
Disregarding sounds and colours, upright,
Avoiding Mara one is liberated from death.
Carefully abstaining from pleasures and ceasing from bad works
he is a hero, guarding himself, who is grounded in knowledge.
Examining karman and the root of karman, viz. killing, examining
(it) and adopting its contrary, he is not seen by both ends.
Knowing this, a wise man who knows the world and has cast off
the idea of the world, should prudently conquer the obstructions
to righteousness Thus I say.
Look, Sir, at birth and old age here,
Examine and know the happiness of the living,
Thence the most learned, I knowing (what is called) the highest
He who has right intuition, commits no sin.
Undo the bond with mortals here;
He who lives by sins, is subject to both
Desirous of pleasures they heap up karman,
Influenced by it they are born again.
Killing (animals) he thinks good sport, and derives mirth from
Away with that fool's company, he increases his own
Thence the most learned, knowing (what is called) the highest
Aware of the punishment, commits no sin;
Wisely avoid the top and the root!
Cutting them off, he knows himself free from karman.
That man will be liberated from death; he is a sage who sees the
danger, knowing the highest good in this world, leading a
circumspect life, calm, guarded, endowed (with knowledge),
always restrained, longing for death, he should lead a religious
life. Manifold, indeed, appear sinful actions; therefore prove
constant to truth ! Delighting in it, a wise man destroys all
Many, indeed, are the plans Of this man (of the world); he will
satisfy his desires; he (thereby causes) the slaughter of
others, the pain of others, the punishment of others, the
slaughter, the blame, the punishment of a whole province. Doing
such things, some have exerted themselves.
Therefore the second (i.e. the wrong creed) is not adhered to.
The knowing one seeing the vanity (of the world) [knowing the
rise and fall of the souls], the Brahman follows the unrivalled
(control of the Gainas). He should not kill, nor cause others to
kill, nor consent to the killing of others. 'Avoid gaiety, not
delighting in creatures (i.e. women), having the highest
intuition,' keeping off from sinful acts.
And the hero should conquer wrath and pride,
Look at the great hell (as the place) for greed.
Therefore the hero abstaining from killing,
Should destroy sorrow, going the road of easiness
Here now the hero, knowing the bondage,
Knowing sorrow, should restrain himself.
Having risen to birth among men,
He should not take the life of living beings.
Knowing the connection of the world, (carelessness is not for
his benefit).' 'Look at the exterior (world from analogy with
thy own) self; [then] thou wilt neither kill nor destroy (living
beings);' viz. out of reciprocal regard [well examining] he does
no sinful act. What is the characteristic of a sage?'
Recognising the equality (of all living beings), he appeases
Knowing the highest good, one should never be careless;
Guarding one's self, always prudent, one should pass life on the
'One should acquire disregard of sensual enjoyment, being with a
great one (i.e. a god) or the small ones (men).' When one knows
whence men come and where they go, and when both ends are out of
sight, one is not cut, nor slit, nor burnt, nor struck
Some do not remember what preceded the present: 'what has been
his past? what will be his future?' Some men here say: 'what has
been his past, that will be his future.'
There is no past thing, nor is there a future one
So opine the Tathagatas.
He whose karman has ceased and conduct is right, who recognises
the truth (stated above) and destroys sinfulness (thinks):
What is discontent and what is pleasure? not subject to either,
one should live;
Giving up all gaiety, circumspect and restrained, one should
lead a religious life.
Man! Thou art thy own friend; why wishest thou for a friend
beyond thyself? Whom he knows as a dweller on high, him he
should know as a dweller far (from sin); and whom he knows as a
dweller far (from sin), him he should know as a dweller on high.
Man! restraining thyself (from the outward world) 'thou wilt get
free from pain.' Man, understand well the truth! exerting
himself in the rule of truth a wise man overcomes Mara.
'The gifted man, following the law, sees well his true
interest.' In a twofold ways, for the sake of life's splendour,
honour and glory (some men exert themselves), wherein they go
astray. The gifted, touched by calamity, are not confounded.
'Mind this! the worthy one, in this world, gets out of the
creation' Thus I say.
That man (i.e. the liberated) conquers wrath, pride, deceit, and
greed. This is the doctrine of the Seer who does not injure
living beings and has put an end (to acts and to samsara).
Preventing propensity to sin destroys former actions. He who
knows one thing, knows all things; and he who knows all things,
knows one thing. He who is careless in all respects, is in
danger; he who is not careless in all respects, is free from
He who conquers one (passion), conquers many; and he who
conquers many, conquers one. 'Knowing the misery of the world'
rejecting the connection with the world, 'the heroes go on the
great journey,' they rise gradually; 'they do not desire life.'
He who avoids one (passion), avoids (them all) severally; and he
who avoids them severally, avoids one. Faithful according to the
commandment (of the Tirthakaras), wise, and understanding the
world according to the commandment - such a man is without
danger from anywhere. There are degrees in injurious acts, but
there are no degrees in control.
He who knows wrath, knows pride; he who knows pride, knows
deceit; he who knows deceit, knows greed; he who knows greed,
knows love; he who knows love, knows hate; he who knows hate,
knows delusion; he who knows delusion, knows conception; he who
knows 'conception, knows birth; he who knows birth, knows death;
he who knows death, knows hell; he who knows hell, knows animal
existence; he who knows animal existence, knows pain.
Therefore, a wise man should avoid wrath, pride, deceit, greed,
love, hate, delusion, conception, birth, death, hell, animal
existence, and pain.
This is the doctrine of the Seer, who does not injure living
beings and has put an end (to acts and to samsara). Preventing
the propensity to sin destroys former actions. Is there any
worldly weakness in the Seer? There exists none, there is none.
Thus I say.
End of the Third Lecture, called Hot and Cold.