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Akaranga Sutra

Knowledge of the weapon
Conquest of the world
Hot and cold
Righteousness
Essence of the world
The Cleaning
Liberation
The Pillow of righteousness
Begging of food
Begging for a couch
Walking
Modes of speech
Begging of clothes
Begging for a bowl
Regulation of possession
Seven Lectures - 1
Seven Lectures - 2
Seven Lectures - 3
Seven Lectures - 4
Seven Lectures - 5
Seven Lectures - 6
Seven Lectures - 7
The Clauses
The Liberation

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Home : Jainism : Akaranga Sutra : Begging for a couch
Begging for a couch

First lesson.

517
If a monk or a nun want to ask for a lodging, and having entered a village or scot-free town, conceive that lodging to contain eggs, living beings, they should not use it for religious postures, night's-rest, or study.

518
But if the lodging contains only few eggs or few living beings, they may, after having inspected and cleaned it, circumspectly use it for religious postures. Now, if they conceive that the householder, for the sake of a Nirgrantha and on behalf of a fellow-ascetic (male or female, one or many), gives a lodging which he has bought or stolen or taken, though it was not to -be taken nor given, but was taken by force, by acting sinfully towards all sorts of living beings , they should not use for religious postures, such a lodging which has been appropriated by the giver himself.

519
The same holds good if there be instead of a fellow-ascetic many Sramanas and Brahmanas, guests, paupers, and beggars. But if the lodging has been appropriated by another man than the giver, they may, after having inspected and cleaned it, circumspectly use it for religious postures.

520
A monk or a nun, knowing that the layman has, for the sake of the mendicant, matted the lodging. whitewashed it, strewn it (with grass), smeared it (with cowdung), levelled, smoothed, or perfumed it (or the floor of it), should not use that lodging, which has been prepared by the giver himself, for religious postures. But if it has been prepared by another person, they may circumspectly use it for religious postures.

521
A monk or a nun, knowing that a layman will, for the sake of a mendicant, make small doors large. Spread his couch or place it outside, should not use such a lodging which has been appropriated by the giver himself, for religious postures. But if it has been appropriated by another person, they may circumspectly use it for religious postures.

522
Again, a monk or a nun, knowing that the layman, for the sake of the mendicant, removes from one place to another, or places outside, bulbs or roots or leaves or flowers or fruits or seeds or grass-blades of water plants, should not use such a lodging, which is appropriated by the giver himself, for religious postures. But if it has been prepared by another person, they may circumspectly use it for religious postures.

523
A monk or a nun, knowing that the layman, for the sake of the mendicant, removes from one place to another, or places outside, a chair or a board or a ladder or a mortar, should not use such a lodging-place. (all as at the end of the last paragraph).

524
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging-place above ground, as a pillar or a raised platform or a scaffold or a second story or a flat roof, likewise no underground place (except under urgent circumstances). If by chance they are thus lodged, they should there not wash or clean their hands or feet or eyes or teeth or mouth with hot or cold water; nor should they put forth there any other secretion, as excrements, urine, saliva, mucus, bilious humour, ichor, blood, or any other part of the bodily humours.

525
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: Making secretions he might stumble or fall; stumbling or falling he might hurt his hand or any other limb of his body, or kill, all sorts of living beings. Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should use no above-ground lodging-place for religious postures.

526
A monk or a nun on a begging-tour should not use, for. religious postures, a lodging-place used by the householder, in which there are women, children, cattle, food, and drink. This is the reason: A mendicant living together with a householder's family may have an attack of gout, dysentery, or vomiting; or some other pain, illness, or disease may befall him; the layman might, out of compassion, smear or anoint the mendicant's body with oil or ghee or butter or grease, rub or shampoo it with perfumes, drugs, lodhra, dye, powder, padmaka, then brush or rub it clean; clean, wash, or sprinkle it with hot or cold water, kindle or light a fire by rubbing wood on wood; and having done so, he might dry or warm (the mendicant's body).

527
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should not us for religious postures, a lodging-place which is used by the householder.

528
This is (another) reason: While a mendicant lives in a lodging used by the householder, the householder or his wife, might bully, scold, attack or beat each other. Then the mendicant might direct his mind to approval or dislike: 'Let them bully each other!' or, 'Let them not bully each other!'

529
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should not use, for religious postures, a lodging-place used by the householder.

530
This is (another) reason: While the mendicant lives together with householders, the householder might, for his own sake, kindle or light or extinguish a fire-body. Then the mendicant might direct his mind to approval or dislike: 'Let them kindle or light or extinguish a fire-body;' or,'Let them not do so.'

531
Hence it has been said to the mendicant.

532
This is (another) reason: While the mendicant lives together with householders, he might see the householder's earrings or girdle or jewels or pearl. or gold and silver or bracelets (those round the wrist and those round the upper arm) or necklaces (those consisting of three strings, or those reaching halfway down the body, or those consisting of eighty strings or forty strings or one string or strings of pearls, golden beads or jewels) or a decked or ornamented girl or maiden. Thus the mendicant might direct his mind to approval or dislike: 'Let her be thus;' or, 'Let her not be thus.' So he might say, so he might think. Hence it has been said to the mendicant.

533
This is (another) reason: While a mendicant lives together with householders, the householder's wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, nurses, slave-girls or servant-girls might say: 'These reverend Sramanas, have ceased from sexual intercourse; it behoves them not to indulge in sexual intercourse: whatever woman indulges with them in sexual intercourse, will have a strong, powerful, illustrious, glorious, victorious son of heavenly beauty.' Hearing and perceiving such talk, one of them might induce the mendicant ascetic to indulge in sexual intercourse.

534
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should not use for religious postures, a lodging used by the householder.

535
This is the whole duty.

536
Thus I say.

Second lesson.

537
Some householders are of clean habits and the mendicants, because they never bathe, are covered with uncleanliness; they smell after it, they smell badly, they are disagreeable, they are loathsome. Hence the householders, with regard to the mendicant, put off some work which otherwise they would have done before, and do some work which otherwise they would have put off.

538
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that he should not use, for religious postures, a lodging used by the householder.

539
This is the reason: While a mendicant lives together with householders, the householder might, for his own sake, have prepared something to eat. Then, afterwards, he might, for the sake of the mendicant, prepare or dress food, and the mendicant might desire to eat or drink or swallow it.

540
Hence it has been said to the mendicant.

541
This is the reason: While the mendicant lives together with a householder, there may be ready wood cleft for the use of the householder. Then, afterwards, (the householder) might, for the sake of the mendicant, cleave or buy or steal wood, kindle or light, by rubbing wood on wood, the fire-body, and the mendicant might desire to dry or warm himself at, or enjoy, the fire.

542
Hence it has been said to the mendicant.

543
When in the night or twilight a mendicant, to ease nature, leaves the door open, a thief, watching for an occasion, might enter. It is not meet for the mendicant to say: This thief enters or does not enter, he hides himself or does not hide himself, he creeps in or does not creep in, he speaks or does not speak; he has taken it, another has taken it, it is taken from that man; this is the thief, this is the accomplice, this is the murderer, he has done so'. The householder will suspect the ascetic, the mendicant, who is not a thief, to be the thief. Hence it has been said to the mendicant.

544
A monk or a nun should not use, for religious postures, sheds of grass or straw which contain eggs, living beings. But they may do so if they contain few eggs, few living beings.

545
A mendicant should not stay in halting-places, garden houses, family houses, monasteries, where many fellow-ascetics are frequently arriving.

546
If the reverend persons continue to live in those places after staying there for a month [or any fixed period, which the mendicant has vowed not to exceed staying in one place] in the hot or cold seasons or for the rainy season (he should say): 'O long-lived one! you sin by overstaying the fixed time.'

547
If the reverend persons repeatedly live in halting-places, after staying there for the proper time, without passing two or three intermediate months somewhere else, (he should say): 'O long lived one! you sin by repeating your retreat in the same place.'

548
Here, in the east, west, north, or south, there are, forsooth, some faithful householders, householders' wives, who are not well acquainted with the rules of monastic life (with regard to the fitness of lodging-places); nevertheless they believe in, perceive, are convinced of, (the merit of) giving lodging, to mendicants. They (accordingly) give lodging-places for the sake of many Sramanas and Brahmanas, guests, paupers, and beggars, in workshops, chapels, temples, assembly halls, wells, houses or halls for shopkeeping or for keeping or building carriages, distilleries, houses where Darbha-grass, bark, trees, wood or charcoal are being worked, houses on burial-places, rooms for retirement near the place of sacrifice', empty houses, hill-houses, caves, stone-houses, or palaces. He should say to those reverend persons who live in such-like places as workshops, together with other guests: 'O long-lived one! you sin by living in a place frequented by other sectarians.'

549
Here, in the east. They accordingly give palaces. If the mendicants come there while the other religious men do not come there, they sin by living in a place not frequented by other mendicants.

550
In the east, west, north, or south there are faithful householders, viz. a householder or his wife, who will speak thus: 'It is not meet that these illustrious, pious, virtuous, eloquent, controlled, chaste ascetics, who have ceased from sexual intercourse, should dwell in a lodging which is adhakarmika: let us give to the mendicants the lodgings which are ready for our use, viz. workshops, and let us, afterwards, prepare lodgings for our own use, viz. workshops.' Hearing and perceiving such talk, if the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, viz. workshops, and live in them which are ceded by other people (they should be warned): 'O long-lived one! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) vargakriya.'

551
Here, in the east. They give lodging-places for the sake of many Sramanas and Brahmanas, guests, paupers, and beggars, after having well counted them, in workshops. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings viz. workshops, and live in them which are ceded by other people (they should be warned): 'O long lived one! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) mahavargakriya.'

552
Here, in the east. They accordingly give, for the sake of many sorts of Sramanas, after having well counted them, lodging-places, viz. workshops. If the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, viz. workshops, and live in them which are ceded by other people (they should be warned): 'O long-lived one! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) savadyakriya.'

553
Here, in the east. They accordingly prepare, for the sake of one sort of Sramanas, lodgings, viz. workshops, for which purpose great injury is done to the earth, water, fire, wind-bodies, plants, and animals, great injury, great cruelty, great and manifold sinful acts; by wasting cold water or strewing (the ground), smearing it with cowdung, shutting the doors and securing the bed, lighting a fire. If the reverend persons' frequent such-like lodgings, viz. workshops, and lead in such ceded lodgings an ambiguous life (they should be warned): ' O long-lived one! that (lodging is infected by the sin called) mahasavadyakriya.'

554
But if the lodgings, viz. workshops, are prepared by the householders for their own sake under the same circumstances as detailed in the preceding paragraph, and the reverend persons frequent such-like lodgings, they lead, in those lodgings, an unambiguous life. 'O long-lived one! that (lodging is infected by the very small sin called) alpasivadyakriya.'

555
This is the whole duty.

556
Thus I say.

Third lesson.

557
It is difficult to obtain pure, acceptable alms; it is indeed not free from such preparations as strewing the ground (with Darbha-grass), smearing it (with cowdung), shutting the doors and securing the beds. And he (the mendicant) delights in pilgrimage, religious exercises, study, begging for a bed, a couch, or other alms.'

558
Some mendicants explain thus (the requisites of a lodging); they are called upright, searching after liberation, practising no deceit.

559
Some householders (who, having learned the requisites of a lodging-place, fit one out accordingly, try to deceive the mendicants, saying): 'This lodging, which we offer you, has been assigned to you, it has been originally prepared for our sake, or for the sake of some relations, it has been used, it has been relinquished.'

560
Explaining thus, he truly explains. (The teacher says): Well, he is (an explainer of the truth).

561
If a mendicant, at night or at the twilight, leaves or enters a small lodging, one with a small door, a low or crammed lodging, (he should put forward) first his hand, then his foot, and thus circumspectly leave or enter it.

562
The Kevalin says: This is the reason: There might be a badly.bound, badly placed, badly fastened, loose umbrella, pot, stick, staff, robe, hide, leather boots or piece of leather belonging to Sramanas or Brahmanas; and the mendicant, when leaving or entering (the lodging) at night or twilight, might stumble or fall; stumbling or falling he might hurt his hand or foot, kill, all sorts of living beings.

563
Hence it has been said to the mendicant, that one (should put forward) first the hand, then the foot, and thus circumspectly leave or enter such a lodging.

564
He (the mendicant) should, at halting-places, ask for a lodging-place, after having inquired who is the landlord or who is the tenant. He should ask permission to use the lodging-place in this way: 'By your favour, O long-lived one! we shall dwell here for a while (for the time and in the place) which you will concede.' (If the landlord should object and say that he owns the lodging for a limited time only, or if he asks for the number of monks for which the lodging is required, he should answer)': 'As long as this lodging belongs to you, (or) for the sake of as many fellow-ascetics (as shall stand in need of it), we shall occupy the lodging; afterwards we shall take to wandering.'

565
A monk or a nun may know the name and gotra of him in whose lodging he lives; in that case they should not accept food, in that house whether invited or not invited; for it is impure and unacceptable.

566
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging-place which is used by the householder, which contains fire or water; for it is not fit for a wise man to enter or leave it.

567
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging for which they have to pass through the householder's abode, or to which there is no road; for it is not fit.

568
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging where the householder or his wife, might bully or scold, each other; for it is not fit.

569
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging where the householder or his wife, rub or anoint each other's body with oil or ghee or butter or grease; for it is not fit.

570
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging where the householder or his wife, rub or shampoo each other's body with perfumes, ground drugs, powder, lodhra. ; for it is not fit.

571
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging where the householder or his wife, clean, wash, or sprinkle each other's body with cold or hot water; for it is not fit.

572
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging where the householder or his wife, go about naked or hide themselves, or talk about sexual pleasures, or discuss a secret plan; for it is not fit.

573
A monk or a nun should not use for religious postures, a lodging which is a much-frequented playground; for it is not fit.

574
If a monk or a nun wish to beg for a couch, they should not accept one which they recognise full of eggs, living beings.

575
If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, but is heavy, they should not accept such a couch.

576
If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, light, but not movable, they should not accept such a couch.

577
If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, light, movable, but not well tied, they should not accept such a couch.

578
5. If the couch is free from eggs, living beings, light, movable, and well tied, they may accept such a couch.

579
For the avoidance of these occasions to sin there are four rules, according to which the mendicant should beg for a couch.

580
Now this is the first rule for begging for a couch. If a monk or a nun beg for a couch, specifying (its quality), viz. one of Ikkata-reed, a hard one, one of Gantuka-grass, of Para-grass, of peacock feathers, of hay, of Kusa-grass, of brush-hair, of Pakkaka, of Pippala, of straw, they should, after consideration, say: 'O long-lived one! (or, O sister!) please give me this here!' If the householder prepares one of the above-specified couches, or if the mendicant asks himself, and the householder gives it, then he may accept it as pure and acceptable.

581
This is the first rule.

582
Now follows the second rule.

583
If a monk or a nun beg for a couch (of the abovedetailed description) after having well inspected it, they should, after consideration, say: 'O long-lived one! ' (all as in-the first rule).

584
This is the second rule.

585
If a monk or a nun beg for a couch of the above-detailed description, viz. one of Ikkata-grass, from him in whose house he lives, they may use it if they get it; if not, they should remain in a,.squatting or sitting posture (for the whole night).

586
This is the third rule.

587
Now follows the fourth rule.

588
If a monk or a nun beg for a couch such as it is spread, either on the ground or on a wooden plank, they may use it if they get it; if not, they should remain in a squatting or sitting posture (for the whole night).

589
This is the fourth rule.

590
A monk who has adopted one of these four rules, should not say we respect each other accordingly.

591
If a monk or a nun wish to give back a couch, they should not do so, if the couch contains eggs, living beings. But if it contains few living beings, they may restrainedly do so, after having well inspected, swept, and dried it.

592
A monk or a nun on a begging-tour or in a residence or on a pilgrimage from village to village should first inspect the place for easing nature. The Kevalin says: This is the reason: If a monk or a nun, in the night or the twilight, ease nature in a place which they have not previously inspected, they might stumble or fall, stumbling or falling they might hurt the hand or foot, kill, all sorts of living beings.

593
A monk or a nun might wish to inspect the ground for their couch away from that occupied by a teacher or sub-teacher. Or by a young one or an old one or a novice or a sick man or a guest, either at the end or in the middle, either on even or uneven ground, or at a place where there is a draught or where there is no draught. They should then well inspect and sweep (the floor), and circumspectly spread a perfectly pure bed or couch.

594
Having spread a perfectly pure bed or couch, a monk or a nun might wish to ascend it. When doing so, they should first wipe their body from head to heels; then they may circumspectly ascend the perfectly pure bed or couch, and circumspectly sleep in it.

595
A monk or a nun sleeping in a perfectly pure bed or couch (should have placed it at such a distance from the next one's) that they do not touch their neighbour's hand, foot, or body with their own hand, foot, or body; and not touching it, should circumspectly sleep in their perfectly pure bed or couch.

596
Before inhaling or breathing forth, or coughing or sneezing or yawning or vomiting or eructating, a monk or a nun should cover their face or the place where it lies; then they may circumspectly inhale or breathe forth.

597
Whether his lodging, be even or uneven; full of, or free from, draughts; full of, or free from, dust; full of, or free from, flies and gnats; full of, or free from, dangers and troubles-in any such-like lodging one should contentedly stay, nor take offence at anything.

598
This is the whole duty.

599
Thus I say.

600
End of the Second Lecture, called Begging for a Couch.

 


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