Many entertain cruel thoughts
against the world with a motive or without one; they entertain
cruel thoughts against these (six classes of living beings). To
him, pleasures are clear. Therefore he is near death. Because he
is near death, he is far (from liberation). But he who is
neither near (death) nor far (from liberation), considers the
life of a slow and ignorant fool as similar to a dewdrop
trembling on the sharp point of the blade of Kusa grass which
falls down when shaken by the wind. A fool, doing cruel acts,
comes thereby ignorantly to grief. Through delusion he is born,
dies.' Being conversant with the deliberation about this
delusion, one is conversant with the samsara; being not
conversant with that deliberation, one is not conversant with
the samsara. He who is clever, should not seek after sexual
intercourse. But having done so, (it would be) a second folly of
the weak-minded not to own it. Repenting and excluding (from the
mind) the begotten pleasures, one should instruct others to
follow the commandment. Thus I say.
See! many who desire colours, are led around (in the samsara),
they (experience) here again and again feelings (i.e.
punishment). Many live by injurious deeds against the world,
they live by injurious deeds against these (living beings). Also
the fool, suffering (for his passions), delights in bad acts
here, mistaking that for salvation which is none. Many
(heretics) lead the life of a hermit (in order to avoid worldly
sorrows and pains).
Such a man has much wrath, much pride, much conceit, much greed;
he delights in many (works), acts frequently like a stage-player
or a rogue, forms many plans, gives way to his impulses, is
influenced by his acts though he pretends to be awakened:
(thinking) that nobody will see him. Through the influence of
ignorance and carelessness the fool never knows the law. Men!
unhappy creatures, world-wise are those who, not freeing
themselves from ignorance, talk about final liberation: they
turn round and round in the whirlpool (of births). Thus I say.
Many do not live by injurious deeds against the world, they do
not live by injurious deeds against these (living beings).
Ceasing from them, making an end of them, he perceives: this is
a favourable opportunity; he who searches for the right moment
for this body (should never be careless). This is the road
taught by the noble ones.
When he has become zealous for the law, he should never be
careless, knowing pain and pleasure in their various forms. Men
act here on their own motives; it has been declared that they
suffer for their own sins. Neither killing nor lying, he should
(patiently) bear (all unpleasant) feelings when affected by
them. That man is called a true monk.
Those who are not given to sinful acts are (nevertheless)
attacked by calamities; but then the steadfast will bear them.
(he has to bear) them afterwards as (he has done) before (his
conversion). (The body) is of a fragile, decaying nature, (it
is) unstable, transient, tineternal, increasing and decreasing
of a changeable nature. Perceive this as its true character. For
him who well understands this, who delights in the unique
refuge, for the liberated and inactive there is no passage (from
birth to birth). Thus I Say.
Many are attached to something in the world - be it little or
much, small or great, sentient or nonsentient - they are
attached to it (here) amongst these (householders). Thus some
incur great danger. For him who contemplates the course of the
world and does not acknowledge these attachments (there is no
such danger). Knowing that that which is well understood is well
practised, man! with thy eyes on the highest good, be victorious
(in control). Among such men only is real Brahmanhood. Thus I
I have heard this, and it is in my innermost heart; and the
freedom from bonds is in your innermost heart. He who has ceased
(to have worldly attachments), the houseless, suffers with
patience a long time.
The careless stand outside, the careful lead a religious life.
Maintain rightly this state of a sage. Thus I say.
Many are not attached to something in this world, they are not
attached to it among these (householders). He is a wise man who
has heard and understood the word of the learned ones. Without
partiality the law has been declared by the noble ones. As I
have destroyed here the connection with the world, so is the
connection elsewhere difficult to destroy. Therefore I say: One
should not abandon firmness.
Some who early exert themselves,do not afterwards slide back;
some who early exert themselves, afterwards slide back; those
who do not early exert themselves, (can of course) not' slide
back. That man also is of this description, who knowing the
world (as worthless nevertheless) follows its ways. 'Knowing
this, it has been declared by the sage.' Here the follower of
the commandment, the wise, the passionless, he who exerts
himself before morning and after evening, always contemplating
virtue and hearing (the merit of it) will become free from love
and delusion. 'Fight with this (your body)! why should you fight
with anything else?' Difficult to attain is this (human body)
which is worth the fight. For the clever ones have praised the
discernment of wisdom; the fool who falls from it, is liable to
In this (religion of the Gainas the cause of the fool's fall)
has been declared (to depend) on colour and killing. But a sage
who walks the beaten track (to liberation), regards the world in
a different way. 'Knowing thus (the nature of) acts in all
regards, he does not kill,' he controls himself, he is not
Comprehending that pleasure (and pain) are individual, advising
kindness, he will not engage in any work in the whole world:
keeping before him the one (great aim, liberation), and not
turning aside, 'living humbly, unattached to any creature! The
rich (in control) who with a mind endowed with all penetration (recognises)
that a bad deed should not be done, will not go after it. What
you acknowledge as righteousness, that you acknowledge as
sagedom (mauna); what you acknowledge as sagedom, that you
acknowledge as righteousness. It is inconsistent with weak,
sinning, sensual, ill-conducted house-inhabiting men.
'A sage, acquiring sagedom, should subdue his body.' 'The heroes
who look at everything with indifference, use mean and rough
(food)' Such a man is said to have crossed the flood (of life),
to be a sage, to have passed over (the samsara), to be
liberated, to have ceased (from acts). This I say.
For a monk who has not yet reached discrimination, it is bad
going and difficult proceeding when he wanders (alone) from
village to village. Some men (when going wrong) will become
angry when exhorted with speech. And a man with wary pride is
embarrassed with great delusion
There are many obstacles which are very difficult to overcome
for the ignorant and the blinded. Let that not be your case!
That is the doctrine of the clever one (Mahavira). Adopting the
(Akarya's) views, imitating his indifference (for the outer
world), making him the guide and adviser (in all one's matters),
sharing his abode, living carefully, acting according to his
mind, examining one's way, not coming too near (the akarya),
minding living beings, one should go (on one's business).
(A monk should according to the akarya's order) go and return,
contract or stretch (his limbs), thoroughly clean (what ought to
be cleaned). Sometimes, though a monk be endowed with virtue and
walks in righteousness, living beings, coming in contact with
his body, will be killed. (If this happens through mere
carelessness) then he will get his punishment in this life; but
if it was done contrary to the rules, he should repent of it and
do penance for it. Thus he who knows the sacred lore, recommends
penance combined with carefulness.
(When a monk) with fully developed intuition and knowledge,
calm, guarded, endowed (with knowledge), always restrained,
perceives (a woman tempting him), he should consider within
himself: what will this person do? The greatest temptation in
this world are women. This has been declared by the sage.
When strongly vexed by the influence of the senses, he should
eat bad food, mortify himself, stand upright, wander from
village to village, take no food at all, withdraw his mind from
women. First troubles, then pleasures; first pleasures, then
troubles: thus they are the cause of quarrels. Considering this
and well understanding it, one should teach oneself not to
cultivate (sensuality). Thus I say. He should not speak of
women, nor look at them, nor converse with them, nor claim them
as his own, nor do their work. Careful in his speech and guiding
his mind, he should always avoid sin. He should maintain this
sagedom. Thus I say.
Thus I say: a lake is full of water, it is in an even plain, it
is free from dust, it harbours (many fish). Look! he (the
teacher) stands in the stream (of knowledge) and is guarded in
all directions. Look! there are great Seers in the world,wise,
awakened, free from acts. Perceive the truth: from a desire of
(a pious) end they chose a religious life. Thus I say. (I)
He whose mind is always wavering, does not reach abstract
contemplation. Some, bound (by worldly ties), are followers (i.
e. understand the truth); some who are not bound, are followers.
How should he not despond who amongst followers is a
non-follower? 'But that is truth beyond doubt, what has been
declared by the Ginas.'
Whatever a faithful, well-disposed man, on entering the order,
thought to be true, that may afterwards appear to him true; what
he thought to be true, that may afterwards appear to him untrue;
what he thought to be untrue, that may afterwards appear to him
true; what he thought to be untrue, that may afterwards appear
to him true. What he thinks to be true, that may, on
consideration, appear to him true, whether it be true or untrue.
What he thinks to be untrue, that may, on consideration, appear
to him untrue, whether it be true or untrue. But he who reflects
should say unto him who does not reflect: Consider it to be
true. Thus the connection (i. e. the continuity of sins) is
Regard this as the course of,the zealous one, who stands (in
obedience to the spiritual guide). In this point do not show
yourself a fool!
As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou intendest
to kill. As it would be unto thee, so it is with him whom thou
intendest to tyrannise over. As it would be unto thee, so it is
with him whom thou intendest to torment. In the same way (it is
with him) whom thou intendest to punish, and to drive away. The
righteous man who lives up to these sentiments, does therefore
neither kill nor cause others to kill (living beings). He should
not intentionally cause the same punishment for himself.
The Self is the knower (or experiencer), and the knower is the
Self. That through which one knows, is the Self. With regard to
this (to know) it (the Self) is established. Such is he who
maintains the right doctrine of Self. This subject has truly
been explained. Thus I say.
Some not instructed (in the true law) make (only a show) of good
conduct; some, though instructed, have no good conduct. Let that
not be your case! That is the doctrine of the clever one.
Adopting the (akarya's) views, imitating his indifference (for
the outer world), making him the guide and adviser (in all one's
matters), sharing his abode, conquering (sinfulness), one sees
the truth; unconquered one should be one's own master, having no
reliance on anything (in the world). He who is great and
withdraws his mind from the outer world, should learn the
teaching (of the Tirthakaras) through the teaching (of the
akarya); by his own innate knowledge, or through the instruction
of the highest, or having heard it from others. A wise man
should not break the commandment. Examining all (wrong)
doctrines from all sides and in all respects, one should clearly
understand, (and reject) them. 'Knowing the delight of this
world, circumspect and restrained, one should lead the life of
an ascetic.' Desiring liberation, a hero should, through the
sacred lore, ever be victorious. Thus I say.
The current (of Sin) is said to come from above, from below, and
from the sides; these have been declared to be the currents
through which, look, there is sinfulness.
'Examining the whirlpool, a man, versed in the sacred lore,
should keep off from it.' Leaving the world to avert the current
(of sin), such a great man, free from acts, knows and sees the
truth; examining (pleasures) he does not desire them.
Knowing whence we come and whither we go, he leaves the road to
birth and death, rejoicing in the glorious (liberation). 'All
sounds recoil thence, where speculation has no room,' nor does
the mind penetrate there. The saint knows well that which is
(The liberated) is not long nor small nor round nor triangular
nor quadrangular nor circular; he is not black nor blue nor red
nor green nor white; neither of good nor bad smell; not bitter
nor pungent nor astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor soft;
neither heavy nor light; neither cold nor hot; neither harsh nor
smooth; he is without body, without resurrection, without
contact (of matter), he is not feminine nor masculine nor
neuter; he perceives, he knows, but there is no analogy (whereby
to know the nature of,the liberated soul); its essence is
without form; there is no condition of the unconditioned. There
is no sound, no colour, no smell, no taste, no touch-nothing of
that kind. Thus I say.
End of the Fifth Lecture, called Essence of the World.