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Akaranga Sutra

Knowledge of the weapon
Conquest of the world
Hot and cold
Righteousness
Essence of the world
The Cleaning
Liberation
The Pillow of righteousness
Begging of food
Begging for a couch
Walking
Modes of speech
Begging of clothes
Begging for a bowl
Regulation of possession
Seven Lectures - 1
Seven Lectures - 2
Seven Lectures - 3
Seven Lectures - 4
Seven Lectures - 5
Seven Lectures - 6
Seven Lectures - 7
The Clauses
The Liberation

Kalpa Sutra

Life of Mahavira (part 1)
Life of Mahavira (part 2)
Life of Parsva
Life of Arishtanemi
Epochs of the intermediate Tirthakaras
Life of Rishabha
List of the Sthaviras
Rules for Yatis

 

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Home : Jainism : Akaranga Sutra : The Pillow of righteousness
The Pillow of righteousness

First lesson.

306
As I have heard it, I shall tell how the Venerable Ascetic, exerting himself and meditating, after having entered the order in that winter, wandered about,

307
'I shall not cover myself with that robe,' only in that winter (he used it). He had crossed (the samsara) for the rest of his life. This (refusing of dress) is in accordance with his doctrine.

308
More than four months many sorts of living beings gathered on his body, crawled about it, and caused pain there.

309
For a year and a month he did not leave off his robe. Since that time the Venerable One, giving up his robe, was a naked, world-relinquishing, houseless (sage).

310
Then he meditated (walking) with his eye fixed on a square space before him of the length of a man. Many people assembled, shocked at the sight; they struck him and cried.

311
Knowing (and renouncing) the female sex in mixed gathering places, he meditated, finding his way himself: I do not lead a worldly life.

312
Giving up the company of all householders whomsoever, he meditated. Asked, he gave no answer; he went, and did not transgress the right path.

313
For some it is not easy (to do what he did), not to answer those who salute; he was beaten with sticks, and struck by sinful people.

314
Disregarding slights difficult to bear, the Sage wandered about, (not attracted) by story-tellers, pantomimes, songs, fights at quarter-staff, and boxing-matches.

315
At that time the son of G˝atri saw without sorrow (or pleasure) people in mutual conversation. G˝atriputra obtained oblivion of these exquisite sorrows.

316
For more than a couple of years he led a religious life without using cold water; he realised singleness, guarded his body, had got intuition, and was calm.

317
Thoroughly,knowing the earth-bodies and waterbodies and fire-bodies and wind-bodies, the lichens, seeds, and sprouts,

318
He comprehended that they are, if narrowly inspected, imbued with life, and avoided to injure them; he, the great Hero.

319
The immovable (beings) are changed to movable ones, and the movable beings to immovable ones; beings which are born in all states become individually sinners by their actions.

320
The Venerable One understands thus: he who is under the conditions (of existence), that fool suffers pain. Thoroughly knowing (karman), the Venerable One avoids sin.

321
The sage, perceiving the double (karman), proclaims the incomparable activity, he, the knowing one; knowing the current of worldliness, the current of sinfulness, and the impulse,

322
Practising the sinless abstinence from killing, he did no acts, neither himself nor with the assistance of others; he to whom women were known as the causes of all sinful acts, he saw (the true state of the world).

323
He did not use what had expressly been prepared for him; he well saw (that bondage comes) through action. Whatever is sinful, the Venerable One left that undone: he consumed clean food.

324
He did not use another's robe, nor does he eat out of another's vessel. Disregarding contempt, he went with indifference to places where food was prepared.

325
Knowing measure in eating and drinking, he was not desirous of delicious food, nor had he a longing for it. A sage should not rub his eyes nor scratch his body.

326
Looking a little sideward, looking a little behind, answering little when spoken to, he should walk attentively looking on his path.

327
When the cold season has half-way advanced, the houseless, leaving off his robe and stretching out his arms, should wander about, not leaning against a trunk.

328
This is the rule which has often been followed by the wise Brahmana, the Venerable One, who is free from attachment: thus proceed (the monks).

329
Thus I say.

Second lesson.

330
Whatever different seats and couches have been told, whatever have been used by the great Hero, these resting-places are thus detailed.

331
He sometimes lodged in workshops, assembling-places, wells, or shops; sometimes in manufactories [sic] or under a shed of straw.

332
He sometimes lodged in travellers halls, gardenhouses, or towns; sometimes on a burying-ground, in relinquished houses, or at the foot of a tree.

333
In these places was the wise Sramana for thirteen long years; he meditated day and night, exerting himself, undisturbed, strenuously.

334
The Venerable One, exerting himself, did not seek sleep for the sake of pleasure; he waked up himself, and slept only a little, free from desires.

335
Waking up again, the Venerable One lay down, exerting himself; going outside for once in a night, he walked about for an hour.

336
In his resting-places he sustained fearful and manifold calamities; crawling or flying animals attack him.

337
Bad people, the guard of the village, or lance-bearers attack him; or there were domestic temptations, single women or men;

338
Fearful and manifold (calamities) of this and the next world; pleasant and unpleasant smells, and manifold sounds:

339
Always well controlled, he bore the different sorts of feelings; overcoming carelessness and pleasure, the Brahmana wandered about, speaking but little.

340
In the resting-places there once, in a night, the single, wanderers asked him (who he was, and why he was there); as he did not answer, they treated him badly; but he persevered in his meditations, free from resentment.

341
(Sometimes to avoid greater troubles when asked), 'Who is there within?' he answered, ' It is I, a mendicant.' But this is the best law: silently to meditate, even if badly treated.

342
When a cold wind blows, in which some feel pain, then some houseless monks in the cold rain seek a place sheltered from the wind.

343
(Some heretical monks say), 'We shall put on more clothes; kindling wood or (well) covered, we shall be able (to bear) the very painful influence of the cold.'

344
But the Venerable One desired nothing of the kind; strong in control, he suffered, despising all shelter. Going outside once of a night, the Venerable One was able (to endure all hardships) in calmness.

345
This is the rule which has often been followed by the wise Brahmana, the Venerable One, who is free from attachment: thus proceed (the monks).

346
Thus I say.

Third lesson.

347
Always well guarded, he bore the pains (caused by) grass, cold, fire, flies, and gnats; manifold pains.

348
He travelled in the pathless country of the Udhas, in Vaggabhumi and Subbhabhumi; he used there miserable beds and miserable seats.

349
In Ladha (happened) to him many dangers. Many natives attacked him. Even in the faithful part of the rough country the dogs bit him, ran at him.

350
Few people kept off the attacking, biting dogs. Striking the monk, they cried 'Khukkhu,' and made the dogs bite him.

351
Such were the inhabitants. Many other mendicants, eating rough food in Vaggabhumi, and carrying about a strong pole or a stalk (to keep off the dogs), lived there.

352
Even thus armed they were bitten by the dogs, torn by the dogs. It is difficult to travel in Ladha.

353
Ceasing to use the stick (i. e. cruelty) against living beings, abandoning the care of the body, the houseless (Mahavira), the Venerable One, endures the thorns of the villages (i.e. the abusive language of the peasants), (being) perfectly enlightened.

354
As an elephant at the head of the battle, so was Mahavira there victorious. Sometimes he did not reach a village there in Ladha.

355
When he who is free from desires approached the village, the inhabitants met him on the outside, and attacked him, saying, 'Get away from here.'

356
He was struck with a stick, the fist, a lance, hit with a fruit, a clod, a potsherd, Beating him again and again, many cried,-

357
When he once (sat) without moving his body, they cut his flesh, tore his hair under pains, or covered him with dust.

358
Throwing him up, they let him fall, or disturbed him in his religious postures; abandoning the care of his body, the Venerable One humbled himself and bore pain, free from desire.

359
As a hero at the head of the -battle is surrounded on all sides, so was there Mahavira. Bearing all hardships, the Venerable One, undisturbed, proceeded (on the road to Nirvana).

360
This is the rule which has often been followed.

Fourth lesson.

361
The Venerable One was able to abstain from indulgence of the flesh, though never attacked by diseases. Whether wounded or not wounded, he desired not medical treatment.

362
Purgatives and emetics, anointing of the body and bathing, shampooing and cleansing of the teeth do not behove him, after he learned (that the body is something unclean).

363
Being averse from the impressions of the senses, the Brahmana wandered about, speaking but little. Sometimes in the cold season the Venerable One was meditating in the shade.

364
In summer he exposes himself to the heat, he sits squatting in the sun; he lives on rough (food): rice, pounded jujube, and beans.

365
Using these three, the Venerable One sustained himself eight months. Sometimes the Venerable One did not drink for half a month or even for a month.

366
Or he did not drink for more than two months, or even six months, day and night, without desire (for drink). Sometimes he ate stale food.

367
Sometimes he ate only the sixth meal, or the eighth, the tenth, the twelfth; without desires, persevering in meditation.

368
Having wisdom, Mahavira committed no sin himself, nor did he induce others to do so, nor did he consent to the sins of others.

369
Having entered a village or a town, he begged for food which had been prepared for somebody else. Having got clean food, he used it, restraining the impulses.

370
When there were hungry crows, or thirsty beings stood in his way, where he begged, or when he saw them flying repeatedly down,

371
When a Brahmana or Sramana, a beggar or guest, a Kandala, a cat, or a dog stood in his way,

372
Without ceasing in his reflections, and avoiding to overlook them, the Venerable One slowly wandered about, and, killing no creatures, he begged for his food.

373
Moist or dry or cold food, old beans, old pap, or bad grain, whether he did or did not get such food, he was rich (in control).

374
And Mahavira meditated (persevering) in some posture, without the smallest motion; he meditated in mental concentration on (the things) above, below, beside, free from desires.

375
He meditated free from sin and desire, not attached to sounds or colours; though still an erring mortal (khadmastha), he wandered about, and never acted carelessly.

376
Himself understanding the truth and restraining the impulses for the purification of the soul, finally liberated, and free from delusion, the Venerable One was well guarded during his whole life.

377
This is the rule which has been followed.

378
End of the Ninth Lecture, called the Pillow of Righteousness.

379
End of the First Book.


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