He was never without ginger when
he ate. He did not eat much.
When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did not
keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his
family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over
three days, people could not eat it.
When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.
Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he
would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful
If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who
carried staffs going out, he also went out immediately after.
When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive
away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and
stood on the eastern steps.
When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in
another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and
received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste it."
The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his
return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask about
When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give
it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed
meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of
his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living
animal, he would keep it alive.
When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the
entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted
When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his
head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and
drew his girdle across them.
When the prince's order called him, without waiting for his
carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked
When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he
would say, "I will bury him."
When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage
and horses, he did not bow.
The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of
In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on
any formal deportment.
When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an
acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one
wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he
might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious
To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of
his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the
tables of population.
When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of
provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise
On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change
When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand
straight, holding the cord.
When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite
round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and
by and by settles.
The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge.
At its season! At its season!" Tsze-lu made a motion to it.
Thrice it smelt him and then rose.
The Master said, "The men of former times in the matters of
ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of
these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished
"If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of
The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai,
there are none to be found to enter my door."
Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there
were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-kung; for
their ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their
administrative talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary
acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.
The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing
that I say in which he does not delight."
The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people
say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and
Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white
scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder
brother to wife.
Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius
replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn.
Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now
there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."
When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to
sell and get an outer shell for his son's coffin.
The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he
has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he
had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get
a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the
great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot."
When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying
me! Heaven is destroying me!"
When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the
disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is
"Is it excessive?" said he. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for
this man, for whom should I mourn?"
When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great
funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."