from the rest, the following six men, viz., Shihoya no Konoshiro,
Kamikozo no Saigusa, Asakura no Kimi, Mariko no Muraji, Mikaba
no Oho-tomo no Atabe and Suzuki wo no Atabe, have been obedient
to the Emperor. We profoundly commend their sentiments.
"Let the official
rice-fields belonging to the public offices in various places be
done away with, as well as the lent-rice in various places
belonging to the Ko-so-bo Kibishima and let her official
rice-lands be distributed among all Our Ministers and Tomo no
Miyakko. Moreover, let rice-land and hill-tracts be given to
those temples which are omitted from the registers."
20th day. The
Prince Imperial, by a messenger, addressed a petition to the
Emperor, saying: "In the reigns of the former Emperors, they
treated the Empire as a whole, and so ruled it. But, when we
come to the present time, there was division and separation, to
the injury of the Work (the work of the State is meant). Now
that it has devolved on the Emperor our Sovereign to have
pastoral charge of the myriad people, Heaven and Man respond
harmoniously to each other and the government has been reformed
I, therefore, filled with joy and veneration, place it on my
head, and prostrating myself, address Your Majesty: 'The Emperor
who now rules the Land of the Eight Islands as an Incarnate
Deity inquired of thy servant, saying: "Should the Kosbiro no
Iribe in the possession of Ministers, Muraji, Tomo no -Miyakko,
Kuni no Miyakko, and established in the days of former Emperors,
the Mina no Iribe in the private possession of Imperial Princes,
and the Mina no Iribe belonging to the Imperial Father 78 Ohoye
(Hikobito Obove is meant), as well as their Miyake, be allowed
to remain the same as in former generations, or not?" Thy
servant having received this command with reverence, replies
respectfully, saying: "In Heaven there are not two suns: in a
country there are not two rulers. It is therefore the Emperor
alone who is supreme over all the Empire, and who has a right to
the services of the myriad people. Make a special selection of
laborers from the Iribe and from the people granted in fee, and
follow the former arrangement. For the rest, it may be feared
that they will be put to forced labor on private authority. I
therefore offer to the Emperor 524 men of the Iribe, and 181
22nd day. The
Emperor made a decree, as follows: "We are informed that a
Prince of the Western Land admonished his people, saying: 'Those
who made interments in ancient times resorted to a high ground
which they formed into a tomb. They did not pile up a mound, nor
did they plant trees. The inner and outer coffin were merely
enough to last till the bones decayed, the shroud was merely
sufficient to last till the flesh decayed. I shall therefore
cultivate the unproductive pieces of land occupied by these
tombs, to the end that their place may be forgotten after
changing generations. Deposit not in them gold or silver or
copper or iron, and let earthenware objects alone represent the
clay chariots and straw figures of antiquity. Let the
interstices of the coffin be varnished. Let the offerings
consist of rice presented three times, and let not pearls or
jewels be placed in the mouth of the deceased. Bestow not
jewel-shirts or jade armor. All these things are practises of
the unenlightened vulgar.' Again it is said: 'Burial is putting
away, and proceeds from the desire to prevent the dead from
being seen by people.' Of late, the poverty of our people is
absolutely owing to the construction of tombs. We now issue
regulations making distinction of noble and mean.
dimensions of tombs of persons of the rank of Princes and upward
shall be nine feet in length by five in width. Their outer
limits shall be nine fathoms square and their height five
fathoms. The work shall be completed by 1000 laborers in seven
days. At the time of interment white cloth shall be used for the
hangings of the bier, etc. A hearse may be used.
dimensions of tombs of Superior Ministers shall be similar in
length, breadth, and height to the above. Their outer limits
shall be seven fathoms square, and they shall be three fathoms
in height." The work shall be completed by 500 laborers in five
days. At the time of interment white cloth shall be used for the
hangings of the bier, which shall be borne on men's shoulders.
dimensions of a tomb of a Minister of a lower class shall be in
every respect similar in length, breadth, and height to the
above. Their outer limits shall be five fathoms square, and they
shall be two and a half fathoms in height. The work shall be
completed by 250 laborers in three days. At the time of
interment white cloth shall be used for hangings. In other
matters the same rule as before is to be followed.
dimensions of the tombs of persons of the rank of Dainin and
Shonin shall be nine feet in length and four feet in height and
breadth. The ground shall be made level and no mound raised. The
work shall be completed by 100 laborers in one day.
"In the case of
persons from the rank of Dairei to that of Shochi inclusive, the
tombs shall in all respects follow the rule of Dainin, but the
work shall be completed by fifty laborers in one day.
"Let small stones
be used for the tombs of all from the rank of Prince down to
that of Shochi, and let white cloth be used for the hangings.
persons die, let them be buried in the ground, and let the
hangings be of coarse cloth. Let the interment not be delayed
for a single day.
of places of temporary interment is not allowed in any case,
from Princes down to common people.
"Not only in the
Home provinces, but in the provinces generally, let plots of
ground be set apart for interments. It is not permitted to
pollute the earth by dispersed interments in various places.
"When a man dies,
there have been cases of people sacrificing themselves by
strangulation, or of strangling others by way of sacrifice, or
of compelling the dead man's horse to be sacrificed, or of
burying valuables in the grave in honor of the dead, or of
cutting off the hair, and stabbing the thighs and pronouncing a
eulogy on the dead (while in this condition). Let all such old
customs be entirely discontinued.
"A certain book
says: 'No gold or silver, no silk brocades, and no colored
stuffs are to be buried.' Again it is said: 'From the Ministers
of all ranks down to the common people, it is not allowed to use
gold or silver.
"Should there be
any cases of this decree being disregarded and these
prohibitions infringed, the relations shall surely receive
"Again, there are
many cases of persons who, having seen, say that they have not
seen, or who, having not seen, say that they have seen, or who,
having heard, say that they have not heard, or who, having not
heard, say that they have beard, being deliberate liars, and
devoid of truth in words and in sight.
"Again, there have
been many cases in which slaves, both male and female, false to
their masters in their poverty, betake themselves of their own
accord to influential houses in quest of a livelihood, which
influential houses forcibly detain and purchase them, and do not
send them to their original owners.
"Again, there have
been very many cases in which wives or concubines, when
dismissed by their husbands, have after the lapse of years,
married other husbands, as ordinary morality allows. Then their
former husbands, after three or four years, have made greedy
demands on the second husband's property, seeking their own
"Again, there have
been very many cases in which men, relying on their power, have
rudely demanded people's daughters in marriage. In the interval,
however, before going to his house, the girl has, of her own
accord, married another, and the rude suitor has angrily made
demands of the property of both families for his own gain.
"Again, there have
been numerous cases of this kind. Sometimes a wife who has lost
her husband marries another man after the lapse of ten or twenty
years and becomes his spouse, or an unmarried girl is married
for the first time. Upon this, people, out of envy of the
married pair, have made them perform purgation."'
"Again, there are
cases in which women, who have become men's wives and who, being
put away owing to their husbands' dislike of them, have, in
their mortification at this injury, compelled themselves to
become blemished slaves.
"Again, there are
cases in which the husband, having frequent occasion to be
jealous of his wife's illicit intercourse with others,
voluntarily appeals to the authorities to decide the matter. Let
such persons not lay their information until they have obtained,
let us say, three credible witnesses to join with them in making
a declaration. Why should they bring forward ill-considered
"Again, there have
been cases of men employed on forced labor in border lands who,
when the work was over and they were returning to their village,
have fallen suddenly ill and lain down to die by the roadside.
Upon this the inmates of the houses by the roadside say: 'Why
should people be allowed to die on our road?' And they have
accordingly detailed the companions of the deceased and
compelled them to do purgation. For this reason it often happens
that even if an elder brother lies down and dies on the road,
the younger brother will refuse to take up his body for burial.
Again, there are
cases of peasants being drowned in a river. The bystanders say:
'Why should -we be made to have anything to do with drowned
men?' They accordingly detain the drowned man's companions and
compel them to do purgation. For this reason it often happens
that even when an elder brother is drowned in a river his
younger brother will not render assistance.
"Again, there are
cases of people who, when employed on forced labor, cool, their
rice by the roadside. Upon this the inmates of the houses by the
roadside say: 'Why should people cook rice at their own pleasure
on our road and have compelled them to do purgation'
"Again, there are
cases when people have applied to others for the loan of pots in
which to boil their rice, and the pots have knocked against
something and have been upset. Upon this the owner of the pot
compels purgation to be made.
practises are habitual among the unenlightended vulgar. Let them
now be discontinued without exception, and not be permitted
Again, there are
cases in which peasants, when they are about to proceed to the
capital, apprehensive lest their riding horses should be worn
out and unable to go, give two fathoms of cloth and two bundles
of hemp to men of the two provinces of Mikaha or Wohari, to hire
them to feed their horses. After they have been to the capital
and are on their way home, they make them a present of a spade,
and then find that the men of Mikaha, etc., have not only failed
to feed their horses properly, but have allowed them to die of
starvation. In the case of horses of a superior class, they
conceive covetous desires, and invent lying tales of their
having been stolen, while in the case of mares which become
pregnant in their house, they cause purgation to be made, and in
the end make a plunder of the beast.
"Such things have
come to our ears, We therefore now establish the following
are left at livery or in any of the provinces along the highway,
let the owner take with him the man whom he engages for this
purpose, and make a full statement to the village elder, handing
over to the latter at the same time the articles given as
remuneration. It is unnecessary for him to make any further
payment when be returns home. If be has caused the horse to
suffer harm, he should get nothing.
"If any one
disobeys this edict, a severe penalty shall be imposed.
"The dues payable
to Market Commissioners, for main roads, and to ferrymen, are
abolished, and lands are granted instead.
the Home provinces, and embracing the provinces in all four
quarters, during the agricultural months," let every one apply
himself early to the cultivation of the rice-land. It is not
meet at such time to let them eat dainty food or drink sake. Let
faithful messengers be appointed to intimate this to the Home
provinces. And let the Kuni no Miyakko of the provinces in every
quarter choose good messengers to urge the peasants to work in
accordance with the edict."
Autumn, 8th month,
14th day. An edict was issued, saying:
"Going back to the
origin of things, we find that it is Heaven and Earth with the
male and female principles of nature, which guard the four
seasons from mutual confusion. We find, moreover, that it is
this Heaven and Earth which produces the ten thousand things.
Amongst these ten thousand things Man is the most miraculously
gifted. Among the most miraculously gifted beings, the sage
takes the position of ruler. Therefore the Sage Rulers, viz.,
the Emperors, take Heaven as their exemplar in riding the World,
and never for a moment dismiss from their breasts the thought of
how men shall gain their fit place.
" Now as to the
names of the early Princes, the Omi, Muraji, Tomo no Miyakko and
Kuni no Miyakko have divided their various Be and allotted them
severally to their various titles (or surnames). They afterward
took the various Be of the people, and made them reside in the
provinces and districts, one mixed up with another. The
consequence has been to make father and child bear different
surnames, and brothers to be reckoned of distinct families,
while husbands and wives have names different from one another.
One family is divided into five or split up into six, and both
Court and country are therefore filled with contentious suits.
No settlement has been come to, and the mutual confusion grows
worse and worse. Let the various Be, therefore, beginning with
those of the reigning Emperor and including those in the
possession of the Omi, Muraji, etc., be, without exception,
abolished, and let them become subjects of the State. Those who
have become Tonio no Miyakko by borrowing the names of princes,
and those who have become Omi or Muraji on the strength of the
names of ancestors, may not fully apprehend our purport, and
might think, if they heard this announcement without warning,
that the names borrowed by their ancestors would become extinct.
We therefore make this announcement beforehand, so that they may
understand what are Our intentions.
"The children of
rulers succeed one another in the government of the Empire, and
it is well known that the names of the actual Emperor and of his
Imperial ancestors will not be forgotten by the world. But the
names of sovereigns are lightly given to rivers and plains, or
common people are called by them. This is a truly fearful state
of things. The appellations of sovereigns, like the sun and
moon, will float afar: the names of those of the Imperial line
will last forever, like unto Heaven and Earth. Such being our
opinion, we announce as follows: 'Do ye all, from those of the
Imperial line down to the Ministers, the Daibu, Omi, Muraji, and
Tomo no Miyakko, who do Us service, in short all persons of
whatever Uji (One book has ' royal subjects of whatever name'),
give ear to what We say. with regard to the form of your
service, We now abolish the former offices and constitute afresh
the hundred bureaus. We shall, moreover, grant grades of rank
and confer official dignities.
"Let the local
Governors who are now being dispatched, and also the Kuni no
Miyakko of the same provinces, give ear to what we say. In
regard to the method of administration notified last year to the
Court Assembly, let the previous arrangement be followed, and
let the rice-lands which are received and measured be granted
equally to the people, without distinction of persons. In
granting rice-lands the peasants' houses should adjoin the land.
Those whose houses lie near the lands must therefore have the
preference. In this sense receive Our injunctions.
In regard to
commuted taxes they should be collected from males only.
"Laborers should be supplied at the rate of one for every fifty
houses. The boundaries of the provinces should be examined and a
description or map prepared, which should be brought here and
produced for Our inspection. The names of the provinces and
districts will be settled when you come.
"With respect to
the places where embankments are to be constructed, or canals
dug, and the extent of rice-land to be brought under
cultivation, in the various provinces, uniform provision will be
made for causing such work to be executed.
"Give ear to and
understand these injunctions."
9th month. The
Sbotoko Kuromaro, Takamuko no Hakase, was sent to Silla to cause
them to send a hostage. Ultimately the tribute from Imna was
In this month the
Emperor occupied the temporary Palace of Kahadzu. (Some books
have "detached Palace.")
In this year the
rats of the province of Koshi drew together in troops by night
and day, and took their departure toward the East.
(A.D. 647.) 3rd
year, Spring, 1st month, 15th day. There was archery at the
On this day Koryo
and Silla sent messengers together to offer tribute.
Summer, 4th month,
29th day. An edict was issued as follows:
"The Empire was
entrusted by the Sun-goddess to her descendants, with the words:
'My children, in their capacity of deities, shall rule it.' (The
phrase means to follow the way of the gods, or again to possess
in oneself the way of the Gods.) For this reason, this country,
since Heaven and Earth began, has been a monarchy. From the time
that Our Imperial ancestor first ruled the land, there has been
great concord in the Empire, and there has never been any
factiousness. In recent times, however, the names, first of the
gods, and then of the Emperors, have in some cases been
separated (from their proper application) and converted into the
Uji of Omi or Muraji. or they have been separated and made the
qualifications of Miyakko, etc. In consequence of this, the
minds of the people of the whole country take a strong partisan
bias, and conceiving a deep sense of the me and
thee, hold firmly
each to their names. Moreover the feeble and incompetent Omi,
Muraji, Tomo no Miyakko and Kuni no Miyakko make of such names
their family names; and so the names of gods and the names of
sovereigns are applied to persons and places in an unauthorized
manner, in accordance with the bent of their own feelings. Now,
by using the names of gods and the names of sovereigns as
bribes, they draw to themselves the slaves of others, and so
bring dishonor upon unspotted names. The consequence is that the
minds of the people have become unsettled and the government of
the country can not be carried on. The duty has therefore now
devolved on Us in Our capacity as Celestial Divinity, to
regulate and settle these things. In order to make them
understood, and thereby to order the State and to order the
people, We shall issue, one after another, a succession of
edicts, one earlier, another later, one to-day and another
tomorrow. But the people, -who have always trusted in the
civilizing influence 104 exercised by the Emperors, and who are
used to old customs, will certainly find it hard to wait until
these edicts are made. We shall therefore remit to all, from
Princes and Ministers down to the common people of all classes,
the tax in lieu of service."
In this year
Wogohori was pulled down and a Palace built.
having taken up his residence in the Palace of Wogohori,
established a Law for Ceremonies, the regulations of which were
holding official rank must draw up in lines to right and left
outside the south gate at the hour of the Tiger, and wait there
until the first appearance of the sun. They shall then enter the
Court, and having made their obeisances, shall attend in the
Hall. Those who come late will not be permitted to enter and
take up their attendance. 'When the hour of the Horse arrives,
they shall retire when they bear the sound of the bell. The
officer whose business it is. to strike the bell shall wear a
red apron. The bellstand shall be set up in the Middle Court,
The engineer of
the rank of Daisen, Aratawi no Hirafu, Yamato Aya no Atahe,
mistakenly dug a canal which he led to Naniha and thereby
distressed the people. Upon this some one presented a memorial
of remonstrance, and the Emperor made a decree, saying: "We
unwisely gave ear to Hirafu's misrepresentations, and so dug
this canal to no purpose. It is We who are to blame." That same
day the work was discontinued.
month, 11th day. The Emperor made a progress to the hot baths of
Arima. He was accompanied by the Oho-omi of the Right and Left,
and by the other Ministers and Daibu.
12th month, last
day. The Emperor returned from the hot baths and stayed in the
temporary Palace of Muko.
On this day the
Palace of the Prince Imperial took fire, to the great marvel of
the people of that time.
In this year there
were instituted caps of seven kinds and thirteen grades.
The first was
called Shoku-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater
and the lesser. It was made of woven stuff, and embroidered on
the borders. The color of the clothing was in both cases dark
The second was
called Shu-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and
the lesser. It was made of embroidered stuff. The border of the
cap and the color of the clothing was the same as for the
The third was
called Shi-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and
the lesser. It was made of purple material, with a border of
woven stuff. The color of the clothing was light purple.
The fourth was
called Kin-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and
the lesser. The greater Kin-kwan was made of Dai-haku-sen
brocade, and had the cap-border of woven stuff: the lesser Kin-kwan
was made of Sho-haku-sen brocade, and bad the cap-border of Dai-haku-sen
brocade. The color of the clothing was in both cases true dark
The fifth was
called Sei-kwan, and was made of blue silk. Of this there were
two grades, the greater and the lesser. The greater Sei-kwan had
a border of Dai-haku-sen brocade. The color of the clothing was
in both cases deep violet.
The sixth was
called Kok-kwan, and was made of black silk. Of this there were
two grades, the greater and the lesser. The greater Kok-kwan had
a border of wheel-pattern brocade. The lesser Kok-kwan had a
border of diamond pattern brocade. The color of the clothing was
in both cases green.
The seventh was
called Kembu (the initial or lowest rank. It was also called
Risshin). It was made of black silk and had a border of dark
In addition to the
above there were To-kwan, made of black silk. These caps had
varnished gauze stretched behind.
rank were indicated by the border and the hair ornaments. The
latter were in shape like a cicada. The hair ornaments of the
grades from the Lesser Kin-kwan upward were of a combination of
gold and silver: the hair ornaments of the Greater and Lesser
Sei-kwan were made of silver: the hair ornaments of the Greater
and Lesser Kokkwan were made of copper. The Kembu caps had no
These caps were
worn at Grand Assemblies, when foreign guests were entertained,
and at the (Buddhist) maigre feasts of the fourth month and
Silla sent Kim
Chhyun-chhyu, a Superior Minister, of the rank of Greater Ason,
and others to accompany the Hakase, Takamuko no Kuromaro, of
Shotoko rank, and Oshikuma, Nakatomi no Muraji, of middle Shosen
rank, and bring a present to the Emperor of a peacock and a
parrot. Chhyunchhyu was made a hostage. He was a handsome man,
who talked and smiled agreeably.
The Nutari barrier
was constructed, and a barrier-settlement established. Old men
talked to one another, saying: "The migration of the rats toward
the East some years ago prefigured the making of this barrier."
(A.D. 648.) 4th
year. Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The ceremony of New Year's
congratulations took place.
In the evening the
Emperor proceeded to the Palace of Toyosaki in Naniha.
2nd month, 1st
day. Student priests were sent to Korea.
8th day. The Oho-omi
Abe Invited the four classes to the Temple of Shitenoji, where,
having brought in four images of Buddha, lie bad them enshrined
within the pagoda. He constructed a figure of the wondrous
Vulture Mountain, which he made by piling up drums on one
Summer, 4th month,
1st day. The old caps were discontinued. The Oho-omi of the Left
and Right, however, continued to wear the old caps.
This year Silla
sent envoys bearing tribute.
The barrier of
Ihabune was put to rights as a precaution against the Yemisbi.
Eventually subjects from the provinces of Koshi and Shinano were
selected, and a barrier-settlement for the first time
5th year. Spring,
1st month, 1st day. The New Year's congratulations took place.
Nineteen cap grades were instituted, as follows:
In this month an
order was given to the Hakase, Takamuko no Kuromaro, and the
Buddhist Priest Bin to establish Eight Departments of State and
one hundred bureaus.
3rd month, 17th
day. Abe no Oho-omi died. The Emperor proceeded to the Shujaku
gate, where be raised up lamentations for him and showed much
emotion. The Empress Dowager, the Prince Imperial, and the other
Princes, together with the Ministers of every rank, all,
following his example, mourned and lamented.
24th day. Hiuga,
Soga no Omi (styled Musashi) slandered the Oho-omi Kurayamada to
the Prince Imperial, saying: "Maro, thy servant's elder brother
by a different mother, is watching the opportunity of the Prince
Imperial making an excursion to the seaside, in order to do him
a mischief. He will ere long commit treason." The Prince
Imperial believed this. The Emperor sent Ohotomo no Komano
Muraji, Alikuni no Maro no Kimi, and Hodzumi no Kurafu no Omi to
the Obo-omi, Kurayamada no Maro, and questioned him as to the
truth of the charge of treason. The Oho-omi answered and said:
"I will have a personal interview with the Emperor, and shall
then answer to the charge brought against me." The Emperor again
sent Mikuni no Maro no Kimi and Hodzumi, Kurafu no Omi, to
investigate the circumstances of the treason. The Oho-omi, Maro
, again answered as before. The Emperor was therefore about to
raise an armed force and surround therewith the Oho-onii's
house, when the Oho-omi, taking with him his two sons, Hoshi and
Akagoma (also called Mawosu), fled by way of Chinu toward the
boundary of the province of Yamato. Before this, Koshi, the Oho-omi's
eldest son, was already staying in Yamato, where he was building
(This means that
he was staying in the Yamada house.) Now being suddenly apprised
that his father was coming thither in flight, he went out to
meet him at the great Tsuki tree in Imaki. Having approached, he
took the lead and entered the Temple. Then he looked back to the
Oho-omi and said: "Koshi desires to advance straight on in
person, and oppose the army which is coming." But the Oho-omi
would not allow it. That night Koshi conceived the idea of
burning the Palace (the Palace of Woharida is meant), and went
on assembling troops.
25th day. The Oho-omi
addressed his eldest son Koshi, saying: "Dost thou love thy
life?" Koshi answered and said: "I love it not." The Oho-omi
thereupon harangued the priests of the Yamada Temple, his eldest
son Koshi and some tens of other persons, saying: "Shall one who
is in the position of vassal contrive treason against his Lord?
Shall the duty of a son to a father be brought to nothing? This
temple was originally built, not for me personally, but under a
vow for the sake of the Emperor. I have now been slandered by
Musashi, and I fear that I shall. be unjustly put to death. With
so near a prospect of the yellow springs, I would withdraw from
life still cherishing fidelity in my bosom, and the object of my
coming to this Temple is that my last moments may be made
When a one
speaking, he opened the door of the Buddha Hall and uttered a
vow, saying: "In all future births and existences, let me not
have resentment against my sovereign!" When he had made this
vow, he strangled himself and died. His wife and children, to
the number of eight persons, sacrificed themselves with him.
On this day, Oho-tomo
no Koma no Muraji and Soga no Iliuga no Omi were sent as
Generals in command of a body of troops to pursue the Oho-omi.
General Ohotomo no Muraji and his colleague bad gone as far as
Kuroyama when Mu, Hashi no Muraji, and Omimaro, Uneme no Omi,
came running from the Yamada Temple, and brought information
that the Obo-omi Soga, with his three sons and one daughter, had
already committed suicide together by strangulation. The
Generals therefore returned from Tajihi no Saka.
26th day. The
wife, children, and personal attendants of the Oho-omi Yamada,
who committed suicide by strangulation, were many. Kurafu,
Hodzumi no Omi, arrested in a body the Oho-omi's people, viz.:
Tsukushi, Taguchi no Omi, and others, placed cangues round their
necks, and tied their hands behind their backs. That night,
Maro, Ki no Omi, Hiuga, Soga no Omi, and Kurafu, Hodzumi no Omi,
having surrounded the Temple with an armed force, called Shiho,
Mononobe no Futauta no Miyakko, and ordered him to cut off the
Obo-omi's head. Upon this Futsuta no Shiho drew his sword,
raised up the body on its point, yelled and reviled, and then
cut it off.
30th day. There
were executed, as implicated with the Oho-omi, Soga no Yamada,
Tsukushi, Taguchi no Omi, Miminashi no D6toko, Takada no Sikowo
Nukadabe no Yumasu no Muraji, Hada no Adera and others, fourteen
persons in all. Nine were strangled, and fifteen banished.
In this month,
messengers were sent to take over the property of the Oho-omi,
Yamada. Among his property was a beautiful book with the
inscription, "Book belonging to the Prince Imperial," and a
valuable object inscribed "Property of the Prince Imperial."
When the messengers returned and reported the circumstances of
their having taken over the property, the Prince Imperial
recognized for the first time that the heart of the Oho-omi had
remained pure and unspotted. He was seized with shame and
remorse for the past, and bewailed his fate incessantly. Hiuga
no Orai was accordingly appointed Viceroy of Tsukushi. The
people of the time said to one another, "Is not this a disguised
When Sogo no
Miyakko hime, consort of the Prince Imperial, beard that her
father the Obo-omi had been decapitated by Shiho, she took it
deeply to heart and grieved bitterly. She detested hearing
Shiho's name mentioned, and so her personal attendants, whenever
they had occasion to speak of salt (shiho), altered the word and
called it Kitashi. At last Miyakko hime died of a broken heart.
When the Prince Imperial heard that she had passed away, he was
grieved and deeply shocked, and bewailed her loss exceedingly.
Upon this Mitsu, Nunaka Kahara no Fubito, came forward and
presented verses of poetry as follows:
On a mountain
But the wife who
was a like mate for me
Who is it that has
This was the first
Though on every
The flowers are
How can it be that
My darling wife
Does not blossom
This was the
Imperial, with a sigh of deep despair, praised the verses,
saying: "How beautiful! how pathetic! "So he gave him his lute
and made him sing them. He also presented him with four hiki of
silk, twenty tan of cloth, and two bags of floss silk.
Summer, 4th month,
20th day. Kose no Tokodako no Omi, of the Shoshi rank, was
granted the rank of Daishi, and was made Oho-omi of the Left.
'Nagatoko no Muraji (styled Numakahi) of Shashi rank, was
granted the rank of Daishi, and was made Obo-omi of the Right.
5th month, 1st
day. Shikofu, Miwa no Kimi, of Lower Sh6kwa rank, Tsunomaro,
Harahibe, no Muraji 137 of Upper Daisen rank, and others were
sent to Silla.
This year, the
Queen of Silla sent Kim Ta-sya, Sa-son of Sa-tok-pu, as hostage.
He had a suite of thirty persons: One Buddhist priest, two
Si-rang, one Assistant, one Usher, five Chung-kek, ten Artists,
one Interpreter, and sixteen servants of various kinds - in all
Hakuchi,111 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The Imperial
chariot proceeded to the Palace of Ajifu, where the Emperor
viewed the ceremonies of the New Year's congratulations.
On this day the
Imperial chariot returned to the Palace.
2nd month, 9th
day. Shikofu, Kusakabe no Muraji, Governor of the Province of
Anato, presented to the Emperor a white pheasant, saying: "Nihe,
a relation of Obito, the Kuni no Miyakko, caught it on the 9th
day of the first month on Mount Wonoyama." Upon this inquiry was
made of the Lords of Pokcho, who said: "In the eleventh year of
Yung-p'ing in the reign of Ming Ti of the Later Han Dynasty,
white pheasants were seen in a certain place." Further inquiry
was made of the Buddhist priests, who answered and said: " With
our ears we have not heard, nor with our eyes have we seen such.
May it please Your Majesty to order a general amnesty; and so
give joy to the hearts of the people."
The Priest Doto
said: "At one time Korye desired to build a Buddhist temple.
There was no place which was not examined for this purpose. Then
in a certain place a white deer was seen quietly moving, and
eventually a temple was built on this spot. It was called the
Temple of the Park of the White Deer, and the practise of the
Buddhist Law was there permanently established. Again, a white
sparrow was seen at the farmstead of a certain temple. The
people of the country all said that it was a good omen.
Moreover, envoys sent to Great Thang brought back a dead crow
with three legs. The people of the country again said that this
was a good omen. Though these things are trifles, yet they are
deemed of favorable omen. Much more is this so in the case of a
The Priest Bin
said: "This is to be deemed a lucky omen, and it may reasonably
be accounted a rare object. I have respectfully heard that when
a Ruler extends his influence to all four quarters, then will
white pheasants be seen. They appear, moreover, when a Ruler's
sacrifices are not in mutual disaccord, and when his banquets
and costumes are in due measure. Again, when a Ruler is of
frugal habits, white pheasants are made to come forth on the
hills. Again, they appear when the Ruler is sage and humane. In
the time of the Emperor Ch'eng Wang of the Chou Dynasty, the
Yueh-shang family brought and presented to the Emperor a white
pheasant, saying: 'We were told by the old men of our country:
"What a long time it has been since there have been any
exceptional storms or long-continued rains, and that the great
rivers and the sea have not surged up over the land! Three years
have now elapsed. We think that in the Central Land there is a
Sage. Would it not be well to go and pay your respects at his
Court?" We have therefore come, having tripled our
interpreters.' Again, in the first year of Hien-ning in the
reign of Wu-ti of the Tsin Dynasty, one was seen in the
Sung-tsze. This is accordingly a favorable omen. A general
amnesty ought to be granted."
Upon this the
white pheasant was let loose in the garden.
15th day. The
array of guards at Court was like that on the occasion of a New
Year's reception. The Oho-omi of the Right and Left and all the
functionaries formed four lines outside of the purple gate.
Ihimushi, Ahata no Omi, and three others were made to take the
pheasant's litter and move off ahead, while the Oho-omi of the
Right and Left at the head of all the functionaries, and
Phung-chyang, Lord of Pekche, his younger brother Se-syong,
Chhyung-seung, the physician to the King of Koryo, by name
Mo-chhi, the scholar attached to the Court of Silla, and others,
advanced into the Central Court. These four men, viz., Maro,
Mikuni no Kimi, Takami, Wina no Kimi, Mikaho, Miwa no Kimi, and
Maro Kida, Ki no Omi, taking up the pheasant's litter in turn,
advanced in front of the Hall. Then the Oho-oini of the Right
and Left approached and held the litter by the forward end. The
Prince of Ise, Maro, Alikuni no Kimi, and Woguso, Kura no Omi,
took hold of the hinder end of the litter and placed it before
the Imperial throne. The Emperor straightway called the Prince
Imperial, and they took it and examined it together. The Prince
Imperial having retired, made repeated obeisances, and caused
the Oho-omi Kose to offer a congratulatory address, saying: "The
Ministers and functionaries offer their congratulations.
Inasmuch as Your Majesty governs the Empire with serene virtue,
there is here a white pheasant, produced in the western region.
This is a sign that Your Majesty will continue for a thousand
autumns and ten thousand years peacefully to govern the
Greater-eight-islands of the four quarters. it is the prayer of
the Ministers, functionaries, and people that they may serve
Your Majesty with the utmost zeal and fidelity."
this congratulatory speech, he made repeated obeisances. The
"When a sage Ruler
appears in the world and rules the Empire, Heaven is responsive
to him, and manifests favorable omens. In ancient times, during
the reign of Cheng-wang of the Chou Dynasty, a ruler of the
Western land, and again in the time of Ming Ti of the Han
Dynasty, white pheasants were seen. In this our Land of Japan,
during the reign of the Emperor Homuda,"' a white crow made its
nest in the Palace. In the time of the Emperor Oho-sazaki, a
Dragon-horse appeared in the West.'" This shows that from
ancient times until now, there have been many cases of
auspicious omens appearing in response to virtuous rulers. What
we call phoenixes, unicorns, white pheasants, white crows, and
such like birds and beasts, even including herbs and trees, in
short all things having the property of significant response,
are favorable omens and auspicious signs produced by Heaven and
Earth. Now that wise and enlightened sovereigns should obtain
such auspicious omens is meet and proper. But why should We, who
are so empty and shallow, have this good fortune? It is no doubt
wholly due to our Assistants, the Ministers, Omi, Muraji, Tomo
no Miyakko and Kuni no Miyakko, each of whom, with the utmost
loyalty, conforms to the regulations that are made. For this
reason, let all, from the Ministers down to the functionaries '
with pure hearts reverence the gods of Heaven and Earth, and one
and all accepting the glad omen, make the Empire to flourish."
" The provinces
and districts in the four quarters having been placed in our
charge by Heaven, We exercise supreme rule over the Empire. -Now
in the province of Anato, ruled
over by Our divine
ancestors, this auspicious omen has appeared. For this reason We
proclaim a general amnesty throughout the Empire, and begin a
new year-period, to be called Haku-chi. Moreover we prohibit the
flying of falcons within the limits of the province of Anato."
Presents were made
to the Ministers, Daibu and officials of lower rank down to the
clerks, varying in value according to their rank. Hereupon the
local Governor, Shikofu, Kusa-kabe no Muraji, was commended and
granted the rank of Daiseni together with liberal presents. The
commuted taxes and corvies [sic] of Anato were remitted for
Summer, 4th month.
Silla sent Envoys to offer tribute.
One book says: "
In the reign of this Emperor the three countries of Koryo,
Pekche and Silla sent envoys bearing tribute every year."
month. In respect of the tombs which had been demolished in
order to include the ground in a site for a Palace, and of the
people who had been made to remove for the same purpose,
presents were given, varying in value. This having been done,
the chief builder, Hirafu Aratawi no Atabe, was sent to set up
the boundary-posts of the Palace.
In this month the
construction was begun of an embroidery figure of Buddha sixteen
feet in height with its attendant Bosatsu, and of figures of
beings of the eight classes - forty-six figures in all.
In this year,
Ohoguchi, Aya no Yamaguchi no Atahe, in obedience to an Imperial
order, carved one thousand images of Buddha.
Winter, 12th month, last day. More than 2100 priests and nuns
were invited to the Palace of Ajifu, and made to read the
That night over
2700 lights were lit in the courtyard of the Palace, and there
were caused to be read the Antaku and Dosoku Sutras, etc. Upon
this, the Emperor removed his residence from Oho-gohori to the
new Palace. It received the name of the Palace of Naniha no
Nagara no Toyosaki.
This year the
Silla tribute-envoys, Chi-man, of Sa-son rank, and his
companions anchored at Tsukushi, wearing garments of the Thang
country. The Government, disgusted at this wanton change of
habit, reproved them and drove them back again. At this time
Kose no Oho-omi addressed the Emperor, saying: " If we do not
give a blow to Silla at this present time, we shall certainly
have to regret it afterward. Now as to the manner of giving a
blow to Silla, we can do so without raising a sword. From the
port of Naniha as far as Tsukushi let the surface of the sea be
covered with ships, one touching another. Then if Silla be
summoned and called to an account for her offenses, it will be
easy for us to gain our object."
(A.D. 652.) 3rd
year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. When the New Year's ceremonies
were over, the Imperial chariot proceeded to the Palace of
20th day. The
explanations of the Sutras were discontinued. From this day
forward rain began to fall continually, lasting for nine days.
It demolished buildings, and destroyed the young rice-plants in
the fields. Many men, horses, and oxen were drowned.
In this month the
registers of population were prepared. Fifty houses were made a
township, and for each township there was appointed an elder.
The senior member of the family was always made the head of the
household. The houses were all associated in groups of five for
mutual protection, with one elder to supervise them one with
Autumn, 9th month.
The building of the Palace was completed. It is impossible
adequately to describe the appearance of the Palace Halls.
month, last day. The priests and nuns of the Empire were invited
to the interior of the Palace and entertained with meager fare.
Plentiful alms were given, and lights kindled.
Autumn, 7th month. Takada no Nemaro and his colleagues, the
Ambassadors sent to Great Thang, were drowned by the sinking of
their ship in the Gate 1160 of Takashima, off the coast of
Satsuma. Only five men, who lashed themselves to a plank,
floated ashore on the island of Takashima. They knew not what to
do, until one of the five, named Kadobe no Kogane, gathered
bamboos and made of them a raft, with which they anchored at the
island of Shitoji-shima These five men passed six days and six
nights without any food whatever. Thereupon Kogane was
complimented by the Emperor, advanced in rank, and presents
This year the
Prince Imperial petitioned the Emperor, saying: "I wish the
Imperial residence were removed to the Yamato capital." The
Emperor refused to grant his request. Upon this the Prince
Imperial took with him the Empress Dowager, the Empress
Hashibito, and the younger Imperial Princes, and went to live in
the temporary Palace of Asuka no Kahabe in Yamato. At this time
the Ministers and Daibu, with the various functionaries, all
followed and changed their residence. The Emperor resented this,
and wished to cast away the national Dignity. He bad a palace
built in Yamazaki and sent a song to th~ Empress Hashibito,
"The pony which I
I put shackles on
And led it not
Can any one have
The pony which I
5th year, Spring,
1st month, 1st day. In the night the rats migrated toward the
month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial, being informed that the
Emperor bad taken ill, proceeded to the Naniha Palace with the
Empress Dowager, the Empress Hashibito, and also accompanied by
the younger Imperial Princes and Ministers.
10th day. The
Emperor died in the State Bedchamber. He was temporarily
interred in the southern courtyard. Dotoko, Mozu no Hashi no
Muraji, of Upper Shosen rank, superintended the business of the
Palace of Temporary Interment.
12th month, 8th
day. He was buried in the misasagi of Shinaga at Ohosaka.
On this day, the
Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Empress Dowager, changed his
residence to the Temporary Palace of Kahabe in Yamato. Old
people said: "The migration of the rats to the Yamato capital
was an omen of the transference of the capital thither."
In this year,
Koryo, Pekche and Silla sent ambassadors of condolence.